Archive for the ‘Vaccines’ Category

Why Do the U.S. Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Own a Patent on Ebola “Invention?” By Mike Adams Global Research, August 12, 2014 Natural News 3 August 2014 Theme: Science and Medicine The U.S. Centers for Disease Control owns a patent on a particular strain of Ebola known as “EboBun.” It’s patent No. CA2741523A1 and it was awarded in 2010. You can view it here. (Thanks to Natural News readers who found this and brought it to our attention.) Patent applicants are clearly described on the patent as including: The Government Of The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary, Department Of Health & Human Services, Center For Disease Control. The patent summary says, “The invention provides the isolated human Ebola (hEbola) viruses denoted as Bundibugyo (EboBun) deposited with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (“CDC”; Atlanta, Georgia, United States of America) on November 26, 2007 and accorded an accession number 200706291.” It goes on to state, “The present invention is based upon the isolation and identification of a new human Ebola virus species, EboBun. EboBun was isolated from the patients suffering from hemorrhagic fever in a recent outbreak in Uganda.” It’s worth noting, by the way, that EboBun is not the same variant currently believed to be circulating in West Africa. Clearly, the CDC needs to expand its patent portfolio to include more strains, and that may very well be why American Ebola victims have been brought to the United States in the first place. Read more below and decide for yourself… Harvesting Ebola from victims to file patents From the patent description on the EboBun virus, we know that the U.S. government: 1) Extracts Ebola viruses from patients. 2) Claims to have “invented” that virus. 3) Files for monopoly patent protection on the virus. To understand why this is happening, you have to first understand what a patent really is and why it exists. A patent is a government-enforced monopoly that is exclusively granted to persons or organizations. It allows that person or organization to exclusively profit from the “invention” or deny others the ability to exploit the invention for their own profit. It brings up the obvious question here: Why would the U.S. government claim to have “invented” Ebola and then claim an exclusively monopoly over its ownership? U.S. Government claims exclusive ownership over its “invention” of Ebola The “SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION” section of the patent document also clearly claims that the U.S. government is claiming “ownership” over all Ebola viruses that share as little as 70% similarity with the Ebola it “invented”: …invention relates to the isolated EboBun virus that morphologically and phylogenetically relates to known members filoviridae… In another aspect, the invention provides an isolated hEbola EboBun virus comprising a nucleic acid molecule comprising a nucleotide sequence selected from the group consisting of: a) a nucleotide sequence set forth in SEQ ID NO: 1; b) a nucleotide sequence that hybridizes to the sequence set forth in SEQ ID NO: 1 under stringent conditions; and c) a nucleotide sequence that has at least 70%, 75%, 80%, 85%, 90%, 95%, 96%, 97%, 98%, or 99% identity to the SEQ ID NO: 1. In another aspect, the invention provides the complete genomic sequence of the hEbola virus EboBun. Ebola vaccines and propagation The CDC patent goes on to explain it specifically claims patent protection on a method for propagating the Ebola virus in host cells as well as treating infected hosts with vaccines: In another aspect, the invention provides a method for propagating the hEbola virus in host cells comprising infecting the host cells with the inventive isolated hEbola virus described above, culturing the host cells to allow the virus to multiply, and harvesting the resulting virions. In another aspect, the invention provides vaccine preparations, comprising the inventive hEbola virus, including recombinant and chimeric forms of the virus, nucleic acid molecules comprised by the virus, or protein subunits of the virus. The invention also provides a vaccine formulation comprising a therapeutically or prophylactically effective amount of the inventive hEbola virus described above, and a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier. No medical reason to bring Ebola to the United States This patent may help explain why Ebola victims are being transported to the United States and put under the medical authority of the CDC. These patients are carrying valuable intellectual property assets in the form of Ebola variants, and the Centers for Disease Control clearly desires to expand its patent portfolio by harvesting, studying and potentially patenting new strains or variants. Dr. Bob Arnot, an infectious disease specialist who spent time on the ground in developing nations saving lives, recently told Judge Jeanine, “There is no medical reason to bring them here, especially when you see how well Dr. Bradley was.” (2) There is, however, an entirely different reason to bring Ebola patients to America: so they can be exploited for medical experiments, military bioweapons harvesting or intellectual property claims. Surely, medical authorities at Emory University and the CDC are working hard to save the lives of the two patients who have been transported to the U.S. But they are also pursuing something else at the same time: an agenda of isolating, identifying and patenting infectious disease agents for reasons that we can only imagine. Only hoping to save lives? On one hand, it’s worth pointing out that the CDC’s patent on Ebola is at least partially focused on methods for screening for Ebola and treating Ebola victims with drugs or vaccines. This seems like a worthwhile precaution against an infectious disease that clearly threatens lives. On the other hand, why the patent? Patenting Ebola seems as odd as trying to patent cancer or diabetes. Why would a government organization claim to have “invented” this infectious disease and then claim a monopoly over its exploitation for commercial use? Does the CDC hope to collect a royalty on Ebola vaccines? Is it looking to “invent” more variants and patent those too? Make no mistake that billions of dollars in profits are at stake in all this. Shares of Tekmira surged over 11% last Friday as pressure was placed on the FDA to fast-track Ebola vaccine trials the company has set up. “Health campaigners have started a petition which has already been signed by approximately 15,500 people on pressurizing FDA to approve the drug in the minimum possible time frame,” reports (3) Carefully scripted medical theater With this, we start to see the structure of the elaborate medical theater coming together: A global pandemic panic, a government patent, the importation of Ebola into a major U.S. city, an experimental vaccine, the rise of a little-known pharmaceutical company and a public outcry for the FDA to fast-track the vaccine. If Act II stays on course, this medical theater might someday involve a “laboratory accident” in a U.S. lab, the “escape” of Ebola into the population, and a mandatory nationwide Ebola vaccination campaign that enriches Tekmira and its investors while positioning the CDC with its virus patents as the “savior of the American people.” Yes, we’ve heard this music before, but the last time around it was called Swine Flu. The formula is always the same: create alarm, bring a vaccine to market, then scare governments into buying billions of dollars worth of vaccines they don’t need. Watch the episode with Judge Jeanine here: Sources for this article include: (1)… (2)… (3)… Original Source:

Scientists Allege By: Dr. Cyril Broderick, Professor of Plant Pathology Dear World Citizens: I have read a number of articles from your Internet outreach as well as articles from other sources about the casualties in Liberia and other West African countries about the human devastation caused by the Ebola virus. About a week ago, I read an article published in the Internet news summary publication of the Friends of Liberia that said that there was an agreement that the initiation of the Ebola outbreak in West Africa was due to the contact of a two-year old child with bats that had flown in from the Congo. That report made me disconcerted with the reporting about Ebola, and it stimulated a response to the “Friends of Liberia,” saying that African people are not ignorant and gullible, as is being implicated. A response from Dr. Verlon Stone said that the article was not theirs, and that “Friends of Liberia” was simply providing a service. He then asked if he could publish my letter in their Internet forum. I gave my permission, but I have not seen it published. Because of the widespread loss of life, fear, physiological trauma, and despair among Liberians and other West African citizens, it is incumbent that I make a contribution to the resolution of this devastating situation, which may continue to recur, if it is not properly and adequately confronted. I will address the situation in five (5) points: 1. EBOLA IS A GENETICALLY MODIFIED ORGANISM (GMO) Horowitz (1998) was deliberate and unambiguous when he explained the threat of new diseases in his text, Emerging Viruses: AIDS and Ebola – Nature, Accident or Intentional. In his interview with Dr. Robert Strecker in Chapter 7, the discussion, in the early 1970s, made it obvious that the war was between countries that hosted the KGB and the CIA, and the ‘manufacture’ of ‘AIDS-Like Viruses’ was clearly directed at the other. In passing during the Interview, mention was made of Fort Detrick, “the Ebola Building,” and ‘a lot of problems with strange illnesses’ in “Frederick [Maryland].” By Chapter 12 in his text, he had confirmed the existence of an American Military-Medical-Industry that conducts biological weapons tests under the guise of administering vaccinations to control diseases and improve the health of “black Africans overseas.” The book is an excellent text, and all leaders plus anyone who has interest in science, health, people, and intrigue should study it. I am amazed that African leaders are making no acknowledgements or reference to these documents. 2. EBOLA HAS A TERRIBLE HISTORY, AND TESTING HAS BEEN SECRETLY TAKING PLACE IN AFRICA I am now reading The Hot Zone, a novel, by Richard Preston (copyrighted 1989 and 1994); it is heart-rending. The prolific and prominent writer, Steven King, is quoted as saying that the book is “One of the most horrifying things I have ever read. What a remarkable piece of work.” As a New York Times bestseller, The Hot Zone is presented as “A terrifying true story.” Terrifying, yes, because the pathological description of what was found in animals killed by the Ebola virus is what the virus has been doing to citizens of Guinea, Sierra Leone and Liberia in its most recent outbreak: Ebola virus destroys peoples’ internal organs and the body deteriorates rapidly after death. It softens and the tissues turn into jelly, even if it is refrigerated to keep it cold. Spontaneous liquefaction is what happens to the body of people killed by the Ebola virus! The author noted in Point 1, Dr. Horowitz, chides The Hot Zone for writing to be politically correct; I understand because his book makes every effort to be very factual. The 1976 Ebola incident in Zaire, during President Mobutu Sese Seko, was the introduction of the GMO Ebola to Africa. 3. SITES AROUND AFRICA, AND IN WEST AFRICA, HAVE OVER THE YEARS BEEN SET UP FOR TESTING EMERGING DISEASES, ESPECIALLY EBOLA The World Health Organization (WHO) and several other UN Agencies have been implicated in selecting and enticing African countries to participate in the testing events, promoting vaccinations, but pursuing various testing regiments. The August 2, 2014 article, West Africa: What are US Biological Warfare Researchers Doing in the Ebola Zone? by Jon Rappoport of Global Research pinpoints the problem that is facing African governments. Obvious in this and other reports are, among others: (a) The US Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases (USAMRIID), a well-known centre for bio-war research, located at Fort Detrick, Maryland; (b) Tulane University, in New Orleans, USA, winner of research grants, including a grant of more than $7 million the National Institute of Health (NIH) to fund research with the Lassa viral hemorrhagic fever; (c) the US Center for Disease Control (CDC); (d) Doctors Without Borders (also known by its French name, Medicins Sans Frontiers); (e) Tekmira, a Canadian pharmaceutical company; (f) The UK’s GlaxoSmithKline; and (g) the Kenema Government Hospital in Kenema, Sierra Leone. Reports narrate stories of the US Department of Defense (DoD) funding Ebola trials on humans, trials which started just weeks before the Ebola outbreak in Guinea and Sierra Leone. The reports continue and state that the DoD gave a contract worth $140 million dollars to Tekmira, a Canadian pharmaceutical company, to conduct Ebola research. This research work involved injecting and infusing healthy humans with the deadly Ebola virus. Hence, the DoD is listed as a collaborator in a “First in Human” Ebola clinical trial (NCT02041715, which started in January 2014 shortly before an Ebola epidemic was declared in West Africa in March. Disturbingly, many reports also conclude that the US government has a viral fever bioterrorism research laboratory in Kenema, a town at the epicentre of the Ebola outbreak in West Africa. The only relevant positive and ethical olive-branch seen in all of my reading is that reported, “The US government funding of Ebola trials on healthy humans comes amid warnings by top scientists in Harvard and Yale that such virus experiments risk triggering a worldwide pandemic.” That threat still persists. 4. THE NEED FOR LEGAL ACTION TO OBTAIN REDRESS FOR DAMAGES INCURRED DUE TO THE PERPETUATION OF INJUSTICE IN THE DEATH, INJURY AND TRAUMA IMPOSED ON LIBERIANS AND OTHER AFRICANS BY THE EBOLA AND OTHER DISEASE AGENTS. The U. S., Canada, France, and the U. K. are all implicated in the detestable and devilish deeds that these Ebola tests are. There is the need to pursue criminal and civil redress for damages, and African countries and people should secure legal representation to seek damages from these countries, some corporations, and the United Nations. Evidence seems abundant against Tulane University, and suits should start there. Yoichi Shimatsu’s article, The Ebola Breakout Coincided with UN Vaccine Campaigns, as published on August 18, 2014, in the Liberty Beacon. 5. AFRICAN LEADERS AND AFRICAN COUNTRIES NEED TO TAKE THE LEAD IN DEFENDING BABIES, CHILDREN, AFRICAN WOMEN, AFRICAN MEN, AND THE ELDERLY. THESE CITIZENS DO NOT DESERVE TO BE USED AS GUINEA PIGS! Africa must not relegate the Continent to become the locality for disposal and the deposition of hazardous chemicals, dangerous drugs, and chemical or biological agents of emerging diseases. There is urgent need for affirmative action in protecting the less affluent of poorer countries, especially African citizens, whose countries are not as scientifically and industrially endowed as the United States and most Western countries, sources of most viral or bacterial GMOs that are strategically designed as biological weapons. It is most disturbing that the U. S. Government has been operating a viral hemorrhagic fever bioterrorism research laboratory in Sierra Leone. Are there others? Wherever they exist, it is time to terminate them. If any other sites exist, it is advisable to follow the delayed but essential step: Sierra Leone closed the US bioweapons lab and stopped Tulane University for further testing. The world must be alarmed. All Africans, Americans, Europeans, Middle Easterners, Asians, and people from every conclave on Earth should be astonished. African people, notably citizens more particularly of Liberia, Guinea and Sierra Leone are victimized and are dying every day. Listen to the people who distrust the hospitals, who cannot shake hands, hug their relatives and friends. Innocent people are dying, and they need our help. The countries are poor and cannot afford the whole lot of personal protection equipment (PPE) that the situation requires. The threat is real, and it is larger than a few African countries. The challenge is global, and we request assistance from everywhere, including China, Japan, Australia, India, Germany, Italy, and even kind-hearted people in the U.S., France, the U.K., Russia, Korea, Saudi Arabia, and anywhere else whose desire is to help. The situation is bleaker than we on the outside can imagine, and we must provide assistance however we can. To ensure a future that has less of this kind of drama, it is important that we now demand that our leaders and governments be honest, transparent, fair, and productively engaged. They must answer to the people. Please stand up to stop Ebola testing and the spread of this dastardly disease. Thank you very much. Sincerely, Dr. Cyril E. Broderick, Sr. About the Author: Dr. Broderick is a former professor of Plant Pathology at the University of Liberia’s College of Agriculture and Forestry. He is also the former Observer Farmer in the 1980s. It was from this column in our newspaper, the Daily Observer, that Firestone spotted him and offered him the position of Director of Research in the late 1980s. In addition, he is a scientist, who has taught for many years at the Agricultural College of the University of Delaware. Source: DRUG companies will no longer be able to pay for doctors to travel to conferences under new laws proposed by the Greens to get rid of a multimillion-dollar gravy train believed to be contaminating medical practice. As concern mounts about the influence of drug and medical device companies’ largesse on doctors, Greens health spokesman Richard Di Natale said he would introduce a bill to the Senate to clean up the pharmaceutical sector’s interaction with health professionals. The bill would ban payments for doctors to travel or attend education seminars and conferences domestically and overseas, as well as the sponsorship of educational meetings intended for Australian doctors overseas. It will also ban gifts and promotional items and require companies to report the names of health professionals and the fees they are receiving for services such as speeches or consulting. In Australia, drug companies are spending about $65 million a year on hosting doctors at more than 35,000 educational events and some believe it is polluting medical practice with commercial interests. Read the full report via smh;++Bio+Weapons)&utm_content=Yahoo!+Mail&m=1 Method of continuous production of retroviruses (HTLV-III) from patients with AIDS and pre-AIDS Abstract A cell system is disclosed for the reproducible detection and isolation of human T-lymphotropic retroviruses (HTLV-family) with cytopathic effects (HTLV-III) from patients with the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), pre-AIDS and in healthy carriers. One neoplastic aneuploid T-cell line derived from an adult with lymphoid leukemia, and termed HT, was susceptible to infection with the new variants of HTLV, which are transformed and providing T-cell populations which are highly susceptible and permissive from HTLV-III, and convenience for large scale production, isolation and biological detection of the virus. Inventors: Gallo; Robert C. (Bethesda, MD), Popovic; Mikulas (Bethesda, MD) Assignee: The United States of America as represented by the Department of Health (Washington, DC) [*] Notice: The portion of the term of this patent subsequent to May 28, 2002 has been disclaimed. Appl. No.: 06/602,946 Filed: April 23, 1984 Current U.S. Class: 435/239 ; 424/208.1; 435/235.1; 435/372.3; 435/948 Current International Class: C12N 5/06 (20060101); C12N 7/00 (20060101); C12N 007/02 (); C12N 007/00 (); C12N 005/00 (); C12R 001/91 () Field of Search: 435/235,239,240,948,5,29 424/89 128/1T References Cited [Referenced By] U.S. Patent Documents 4464465 August 1984 Lostrom et al. 4520113 May 1985 Gallo et al. Other References Popovic et al, Science, 224(4648):497-500, May 4, 1984. . Gallo et al, “Isolation of Human T-Cell Leukemia Virus in Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS)”, Science, 220, pp. 865-867 (5-1983). . Barre-Sinoussi et al, “Isolation of a T-Lymphotropic Retrovirus from a Patient at Risk for AIDS”, Science, 220, pp. 868-871 (5-1983). . Marx, “Strong New Candidate for AIDS Agent”, Science, 224, pp. 475-477 (5-1984).. Primary Examiner: Warren; Charles F. Assistant Examiner: Tarcza; John Edward Attorney, Agent or Firm: Roberts, Jr.; John S. Claims We claim: 1. A method for continuous production of HTLV-III virus which comprises infecting in cell culture highly susceptible, permissive cells consisting of a neoplastic aneuploid HT-cell line with said virus, said cells preserve the capacity for permanent growth after the infection with said virus, growing said cells under conditions suitable for cell growth and recovering said virus produced by said cells. 2. The method of claim 1, wherein said virus consists of cytopathic variants of HTLV. 3. The method of claim 1 wherein said infecting comprises cocultivating said virus with said cells to produce a cell line and recovering said cell line. 4. The method of claim 1 wherein said infecting comprises cell-free infection of said cells with said virus. 5. The method of claim 1 wherein said cells are neoplastic aneuploid T-cells derived from an adult with lymphoid leukemia. 6. A process for the continuous production of HTLV-III virus which comprises cocultivating said virus with a target HT-cell to produce an infected cell line, growing said cell line and recovering said virus from supernatants produced by said cell line. 7. The process of claim 6 wherein said target T-cell is a neoplastic aneuploid T-cell susceptible to infection with HTLV-III. 8. A process for the continual production of HTLV-III by infecting T-cells in cultures which comprises cocultivating HTLV-III virus with an HT-clone to produce an infected cell line, said clone being an aneuploid T-cell line derived from lymphoid leukemia, growing said cell line and recovering said virus from supernatants produced by said cell line. 9. The process in claim 8 wherein said clone is a mature T-cell phenotype of OKT3.sup.+ (62%), OKT4.sup.+ (39%) and OKT8.sup.-. 10. A method of producing a cell line containing an antigen of HTLV-III which comprises infecting an HT-cell line derived from lymphoid leukemia and susceptible to infection with HTLV-III, said cell line is capable of continuous large-scale production of HTLV-III, and growing the infected cell line under conditions suitable for growth. 11. The method of claim 10 wherein said cell line is a neoplastic aneuploid T-cell line. 12. The method of claim 10 wherein said HTLV-III are variants of human T-lymphotropic retrovirus, exhibit cytopathic effects and are non-transforming. 13. A cell line containing HTLV-III designated H9/HTLV-III.sub.B, ATCC Accession CRL 8543. 14. A process for producing a cell line H9/HTLV-III.sub.B which comprises infecting a target T-cell with HTLV-III virus to produce a cell line and recovering same, said infecting process overcomes the normal cytopathic effect of HTLV-III and preserves the immortal growth capacity of the target cell. 15. An HT cell line permanently infected with HTLV-III virus, wherein said cell line continually produces said virus. Description The present invention describes a cell system for the reproducible detection and isolation of human T-lymphotropic retroviruses (HTLV-family) with cytopathic or cell killing effects (HTLV-III) from patients with the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), pre-AIDS and in healthy carriers. One neoplastic aneuploid T-cell line derived from an adult with lymphoid leukemia, and termed HT, was susceptible to infection with the new variants of HTLV, providing T-cell populations which are highly susceptible and permissive for HTLV-III, and convenience for large scale production, isolation, and biological detection of the virus. BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION The disclosure of this invention is contained in the following journal articles: Gallo et al., “Detection, Isolation, and Continuous Production of Cytopathic Human T-Lymphotropic Retroviruses (HTLV-III) from Patients with AIDS and pre-AIDS,” Science, in press; and Gallo et al., “Human T-Lymphotropic Retrovirus, HTLV-III, Isolated from AIDS Patients and Donors at Risk for AIDS,” in press. Epidemiologic data strongly suggest that acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is caused by an infectious agent which is apparently horizontally transmitted by intimate contact or blood products. Though the disease is manifested by opportunistic infections, predominantly Pneumocystis carcinii pneumonia and Kaposi’s sarcoma, the underlying disorder affects the patient’s cell-mediated immunity with absolute lymphopenia and reduced helper T-lymphocyte (OKT4.sup.+) subpopulation(s). Moreover, before a complete clinical manifestation of the disease occurs, its prodrome, pre-AIDS, is frequently characterized by unexplained chronical lymphadenopathy and/or leukopenia involving a helper T cell subset. This leads to the severe immune deficiency of the patient, suggesting that a specific subset of T-cells is the primary target for an infectious agent. Although patients with AIDS or pre-AIDS are often chronically infected with cytomegalovirus or hepatitis B virus, for various reasons these appear to be opportunistic or coincidental infections apparently not linked to the immunological response deficiency. It is believed that the cause of AIDS may be a virus from the family of human T-cell lymphotropic retroviruses (HTLV) which, prior to the present invention, comprised two major well characterized subgroups of human retroviruses, called human T-cell leukemia/lymphoma viruses, HTLV-I and HTLV-II. The most common isolate, HTLV-I, is mainly obtained from patients with mature T-cell malignancies. Seroepidemiological studies, in vitro biological effects, and nucleic acid hybridization data indicate that HTLV-I is etiologically associated with these malignancies, affecting adults primarily in the south of Japan, the Caribbean and Africa. HTLV of subgroup II (HTLV-II) was first isolated from a patient with a T-cell variant of hairy cell leukemia. To date, this is the only reported isolate of HTLV-II from a patient with a neoplastic disease. Virus isolation and seroepidemiological data show that HTLV of both subgroups can sometimes be found in patients with AIDS. Evidence suggests that the retrovirus(es) of the HTLV family is an etiological agent of AIDS based on the following: (1) there is precedence for an animal retrovirus cause of immune deficiency (feline leukemia virus in cats); (2) retroviruses of the HTLV family are T-cell tropic; (3) they preferentially infect “helper” T-cells (OKT4.sup.+); (4) they have cytopathic effects on various human and mammalian cells as demonstrated by their induction of cell syncytia formation; (5) they can alter some T-cell functions; (6) in some cases infection may result in selective T-cell killing; and (7) they are transmitted by intimate contact or through blood products. The presence of antibodies directed to cell membrane antigens of HTLV infected cells has been shown in sera of more than 40% of patients with AIDS [Essex et al., Science, 220:859 (1983)]. This antigen has since been defined as part of the envelope of HTLV [Schupbach, et al., Science, in press; and Lee, et al., Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., in press]. The original detection and isolation of the various HTLV isolates were made possible by two earlier developments: the discovery of T-cell growth factor (TCGF), also called Interleukin 2 (Il-2), which enabled the routine selective growth of different subsets of normal and neoplastic mature T-cells [Ruscetti, et al., J. Immunol., 119:131 (1977); and Poiesz, et al., Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. U.S.A, 77:6134 (1980)] and the development of sensitive assays for detection of retroviruses based on reverse transcriptase assays. The methods of HTLV isolation and transmission involved a cocultivation procedure using permissive T-cells for the virus. The use of normal human T-cells in cocultivation experiments preferentially yielded HTLV of both subgroups with immortalizing (transforming) capability for some of the target T-cells. However, HTLV variants (now termed HTLV-III), lack immortalizing properties for normal T-cells and mainly exhibit cytopathic effects on the T-cells and is now believed to be the cause of AIDS. In fact, such variants were frequently but only transiently detected using these normal T-cells as targets in cocultivation or cell-free transmission experiments. The cytopathic effect was overcome by finding a highly susceptible, permissive cell for cytopathic variants of HTLV, thus preserving the capacity for permanent growth after infection with the virus. The present invention discloses the identification and characterization of this new immortalized T-cell population and its use in the isolation and continuous high- level production of such viruses from patients with AIDS and pre-AIDS. Early experiments identified one neoplastic aneuploid T-cell line, termed HT, derived from an adult with lymphoid leukemia, that was susceptible to infection with the new cytopathic virus isolates. This cell line is a sensitive target for transmission of these virus isolates (HTLV-III) and it allows continuous large-scale virus production and development of specific immunologic reagents and nucleic acid probes useful for comparison of these new isolates among themselves and with HTLV-I and HTLV-II. In addition to their differences in biological effects that distinguish them from HTLV-I and HTLV-II, HTLV-III also differs from these known HTLV subgroups in several immunological assays and in morphology. However, these new retroviruses are T4 lymphotropic and exhibit many properties similar to HTLV-I and II, including similar properties of the reverse transcriptase, cross reactivity of structural proteins as determined by heterologous competition radioimmune assays with patients’ sera and with animal hyperimmune sera, and induction of syncytia. These new retrovirus isolates are collectively designated HTLV-III, together with detectable differences in some of their proteins and genetic information, HTLV-III’s ability to kill T-cells clearly separates these variants from other members of the HTLV family. Read the full patent via the US patent website


Hyman, MarkView Profile. Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine10. 6 (Nov/Dec 2004): 70-5.


This material was presented at the meeting of Tulane University School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, which was held in New Orleans on September 23-24, 2004

The city of New Orleans was spared the wrath of hurricane Ivan. Yet, a week later, the eye of a different kind of storm stirred at the edge of the Mississippi, a muddy and polluted river, emblematic of our self-inflicted health crisis affecting children and the elderly, from autism to Alzheimer’s disease. A unique international group of policymakers, environmental scientists, toxicologists, biochemists, journalists, academic physicians, practicing pediatricians, neurologists, and dentists gathered to make sense of the environmental impact, toxicology, basic science, public policy, and health implications of one of the least studied and perhaps greatest potential threats to our long-term health-mercury.

In this issue of Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine, Woody McGinnis, MD, puts forth a theory of autism based on oxidative stress. In the conference it was proposed that mercury might be a key part to understanding autism and the toxininduced oxidative stress that results from the interaction of mercury exposure with a child’s unique genetic susceptibilities.

A few highlights will provide a flavor of the discussions that attempted to sift through the policy and scientific quagmire surrounding mercury. The presentations ranged from an analysis of the global cycle of mercury to the methylation cycles impaired by mercury.


Barry Kohl, PIiD, an Adjunct Professor in the Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences at Tulane University, provided a unique overview of the impact of industrialization on environmental mercury levels through a description of the levels of mercury in the ice core extracted from the pristine Freemont Glacier in Wyoming. Dr. Kohl explained that there were small peaks in mercury concentration in the ice core from the Tambora volcanic eruption in Indonesia in 1815; from the use of mercury in smelting during the California gold rush from 18501884; the eruption in 1883 of the Sumatran volcano Krakatau 10,000 miles away; and the more recent Mount St. Helens eruption in 1980. However, over the past 100 years, there has been a 30-fold increase in mercury deposition, 70% of which is from anthropogenic sources. An exponential peak has occurred in the last 40 years due to major industrialization. Much of the mercury comes from coal-fired plants and from chlor-alkali plants that use mercury in the process of making chlorine used in plastics, pesticides, polyvinyl chloride (PVC) pipes, and more.


Harvey Clewell from the ENVIRON Health Sciences Institute, Ruston, I,a, reviewed the epidemiologic studies from the Seychelles and Faroe islands. He presented a continuum of risk model for mercury exposures. Nearly all human exposures to methyl mercury derive from fish. In the Seychelles Islands, there seemed be little effect from mercury on the population; however, the islander’s fish consumption was predominately from low-risk, small reef fish. Maternal-fetal transmission was analyzed in the Faroe Islands. Elevated levels of mercury in umbilical cord blood correlated with decrements in neurologic studies in 5/17 tests in 917 mother-infant pairs. The mean umbilical cord blood level contained 22.9 micrograms per liter. A major source of their fish consumption was whale blubber, which contains over 3 parts per million of mercury.

The health effects from methylmercury upon infants and children depend on the dose, with severe symptoms presenting with exposure to doses of 100 mcg/kg/day, mild symptoms with greater than 10 mcg/kg/day, and sub-clinical symptoms with less than 1 mcg/kg/day. Symptoms include late development in walking and talking, and decreased performance on neurological tests.

Dr. Clewell reviewed the limitations of various forms of testing for mercury. Methylmercury is found predominately in red blood cells. Inorganic mercury from amalgams is found in plasma but is rapidly cleared. Methylmercury is converted to inorganic mercury in the body and is the main form of mercury in brain.


Raoult Ratard, MD1 MS, MPII, State Fipidemiologist, Louisiana Department of Health, and Professor of Environmental Health Sciences at Tulane School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, reviewed the health effects of mercury upon infants and newborns.

Sources of exposure are widespread and include mercury vapors in ambient air, ingestion via drinking water, fish, vaccines, occupational exposures, home exposures including fluorescent light bulbs, thermostats, batteries, red tattoo dye, skin lightening creams, and over-the-counter products such as contact lens fluid and neosynephrine, dental amalgams, and more. Amalgam exposure is estimated to be from 3 to 17 micrograms per day from slow corrosion, chewing, brushing and grinding.

The toxicokinetics of mercury were reviewed. Absorption is about 80% for mercury vapor and nearly 100% for oral absorption. It is primarily distributed in the kidneys and brain and readily transferred to the fetus via the placenta. It is eliminated via the urine, feces, expired air, and breast milk.

Dr. Ratard reported that the major toxicity is from mercury’s ability to covalently bind to sulfhydryl groups of enzymes in microsomes and mitochondria and other enzyme binding sites including carboxyl, amide, amine, and phosphoryl groups.

Clinical manifestations were reviewed, including the historical context of mercury poisoning epidemics such as the Minamata Bay exposures in Japan, acrodynia or pink disease in children from calomel (Hg Cl) used in teething powder, mad hatter syndrome or erethism, and methylmercury fungicide grain seed exposures in Iraq and Pakistan.

The clinical manifestations are varied and mimic many other conditions. Central Nervous System (CNS) toxicity includes erethism with symptoms of shyness, emotional lability, nervousness, insomnia, memory impairment, and inability to concentrate. Other CNS symptoms may include encephalopathy, peripheral neuropathy, Parkinsonian symptoms, tremor, ataxia, impaired hearing, tunnel vision, dysarthria, headache, fatigue, impaired sexual function, and depression. Renal toxicity includes proteinuria, renal syndrome, and acute renal failure. Gastrointestinal symptoms include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and colitis. Dermal toxicity includes allergic dermatitis, chelitis, gingivitis, stomatitis, and excessive salivation.

Assessment and management were discussed including the use of Dimercaptosuccinic Acid (DMSA) and Dimercaptopropane Sulfonate (DMPS).


William Hartley, ScD, Angela R. Machen, MS, Fred Kopfler, PhD, Dianne Dugas, Shannon Soileau, and Chris Piehler discussed public health implications of mercury.

Public health concerns were addressed in depth by various speakers who focused on research on the health effects and exposures of populations to methylmercury through fish consumption from recreational fishing. The difficulties of assessment methods, and the determination of long-term risks, safe limits, toxic doses, and acceptable public health recommendations were clear from the presentations. One note of hope was the reduction in industrial mercury emissions from 220 million pounds to 120 million pounds a year over the last 10 years.


Mike Robichaux, DDS, a practicing dentist, reviewed his experience with removal of amalgams fillings, lie showed a remarkable video of mercury vapor being released from a 25year-old tooth. It is available for viewing on the website of the International Academy of Oral Medicine and Toxicology (


Anders Lindvall, MD, from the Foundation for Metal Biology in Sweden, reported on his work on the health effects of dental amalgams and presented a review of the controversial literature on dental amalgams and human health.

Many patients reported a symptom complex consistent with Chronic Fatigue Immune Dysfunction Syndrome/EpsteinBarr Virus they believed were related to dental amalgams. In 1990, Dr. Lindvall began a study at Uppsala University Hospital in Sweden to diagnose and treat patients with suspected amalgam-related illness and to develop and evaluate diagnostic tools to assess toxicity from dental amalgams. Beside conventional measures of quality of life and symptoms, unique laboratory assessments were used to determine the presence and immunological toxicity of metals. These were 1) Particle-Induced X-ray Emission (PlXE), an accelerator-based test on single blood cells that assesses intracellular levels of trace elements, which showed that, in lymphocytes, mercury is found in the nucleus, particularly in places where zinc is low; and 2) Memory Lymphocyte Immunostimulation Assay (MELISA), a test of lymphocyte reactivity to metal compounds. Information about the MELISA test is available at

The management of patients included supportive antioxidants (B complex C, E, Se), treatment of infection and jaw dysfunction, selective removal of any incompatible dental material, low-emission amalgam removal techniques, use of bio-compatible materials substituting amalgams, and laboratory follow up at one year. The cost was covered by national health insurance. It was a retrospective study of 796 patients with chronic symptoms. Over 70% of patients reported significant improvement in symptoms after amalgam removal. This correlated with improvement in the PIXE and MELISA testing. The study was limited by the lack of an adequate control group. The clinic was closed after the study was published and there was no further access allowed to the records, which contained over 1,000 untreated patients who could have served as a control. As of 1999, amalgam dental restorations in Sweden are no longer covered by insurance.

Dr. Lindvall discussed a review paper that was published on amalgam toxicily in February 2004 in the lnlennuional journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health. Some of the findings from European investigators may be both unfamiliar and surprising to many, but are worth further attention. Mercury vapor is continually emitted and absorbed from amalgams and accumulates in organ tissues. Humans with amalgam fillings have significantly elevated blood mercury levels, 3-5 times more mercury in the urine and 2-12 times more mercury in their tissues than those without amalgam fillings. However, blood and urine mercury levels are not necessarily indicative of mercury load in body tissues or severity of clinical symptoms. Research on sheep and monkeys with dental amalgams has shown that blood mercury levels remained low, whereas tissue mercury levels were raised. The half-life of metallic mercury in the blood is quite short (about 3 days) because it quickly penetrates other tissues. Urine mercury levels mainly reflect the cumulative dose of inorganic mercury in the kidneys and only a weak to no correlation with levels in other target tissues exists. When exposure to mercury ceases, a half-life of 1-18 years can be expected in the brain and bone structures.

Patients suffering from symptoms like fatigue, irritability, mood disorders, poor concentration, headaches, and insomnia due to their amalgam fillings exhibit the presence of apolipoprotein Ii 4 allele (ApoE 4) significantly more frequently than healthy controls. ApoE 4 lacks thiols groups and thus has reduced detoxifying activity. Apolipoprotein E2 and Apolipoprotein E3 can bind and detoxify heavy metals such as mercury. Patients with self-related amalgam complaints have lower selenium levels and deficiencies of trace elements than controls with amalgams that have no symptoms. The total anti-oxidant plasma activity is significantly reduced in individuals with dental amalgams. Studies cited by many authors and institutions as proof of the putative harmlessness of amalgams do not use proper non-amalgam control groups. As noted, findvall reported a 70% improvement in most chronic health complaints after amalgam removal. Other studies showed that patients with chronic fatigue and autoimmune thyroiditis showed improvement in their health status after the replacement of amalgam fillings with composites. In another study, 71% of patients with autoimmune diseases, including multiple sclerosis, improved after amalgam removal. Eow-dose exposure to inorganic mercury may be a co-factor in the development of autoimmune diseases. Animal and in vitro studies confirm that exposure to inorganic and metallic mercury causes neuronal damage and that biochemical alterations including the induction of beta amyloid is found in Alzheimer’s disease even at very low concentrations. These effects were not seen with other metals such as lead, aluminum, cadmium, manganese, zinc, iron, chromium, and copper.

Mercury levels in the human placenta correlate with the number of maternal amalgam fillings, and a substantial amount of mercury from amalgams reach the fetus. Mercury from dental amalgams in pregnant women may also contribute to development of autism in their children. Mothers of 94 autistic children had statistically more amalgam fillings during pregnancy than 49 mothers of normal controls. In contrast to their higher mercury exposure during pregnancy, these autistic children had reduced mercury levels in their first haircut. This may reflect a reduced capacity to excrete mercury from!.heir body, which in turn may lead to elevated brain mercury levels.

In a recent risk analysis it was suggested that the frequency of pathological side effects from amalgams due to genetically determined high sensitivity is about 1%. The German Commission on Human Biological Monitoring states that genetically susceptible persons may develop immunological reactions to amalgams. The portion of susceptible persons in the general public is about l%-4%. Approximately 20% of the general public may experience sub-clinical central nervous system and/or kidney function impairment due to amalgam fillings. Taken collectively, Lindvall suggests, these data question the safety of dental amalgams.


Boyd Haley, PhD, from the University of Kentucky Medical Center, is a vociferous opponent of dental amalgams. A prodigious reading ol the toxicology literature and decades of his own research fuel his fervor. The National Institutes of Health (NIH) funded his research for 25 years until he began to seriously call into question safety of dental amalgams, the use of thimerosal in vaccines and their correlation with autism. The private Wallace Foundation, run by the son of President Truman’s vice-president Henry Wallace who died of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) and who had been frequently exposed to mercury-containing fungicide on grain, now funds his work.

Hr. Haley believes thnt fish is not as big n contributor to mercury toxicity in humans as amalgams because methylmercury is generally excreted quickly while mercury vapor lrom amalgams is not. He reported on the dramatic rise in autism rates, over 900% in less than a generation in California and 714% nationwide. The use ol drugs to treat Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) of all ages has increased 49% in the past 3 years, while their use has increased 369% in children under five years old. He reported on the dramatic increase in autism rates in California since the introduction of the hepatitis B vaccine in 1990 and an increase in the overall vaccination schedule. In 1999, thimerosal was removed from vaccines as parents gained increased awareness of the issue. In the first three quarters of 2004 the data showed a decline in the incidence of autism in California for the first time.

Dr. Haley reported on the toxicity of thimerosal. It is quickly converted to ethylmercury in the body where it moves rapidly from blood to brain. Mercury is lipophilic and concentrates in the brain; therefore, blood levels are not an accurate measurement of total body burden of mercury. Genetic polymorphisms of glutathione disulfide (GSST) prevent excretion of mercury. Mercury can only be excreted when complexed with glutathione (GSH). If it cannot be eliminated because GSH or GSST is lacking, then the mercury stays in tissues and does damage. Thimersol inhibits methionine synthease and methylene reductase and thus has significant effects on the body’s ability to methylate and to produce glutathione.

Dr. Haley has observed that the lowest level of Hg is found in the birth hair of the most severely affected autistic children. The 4:1 ratio of autism in males:females may be in part due to the effects of testosterone on mercury excretion. Antibiotics also prevent excretion of mercury, and antibiotic use is higher among autistic children. Dr. Haley reported on striking data showing a synergistic effects of heavy metals: a (no response level) LD-I and LD-I lead and mercury = lethal dose (LD) 100!

Dr. Llaley’s website is


Jane El Dahr, MD, is the Chief of Pediatric Allergy, Immunology, Rheumatology at Tulane University Health Sciences Center. She reported on the increase in autism in the last decade, its correlation with the change in the vaccine schedule and explored in detail the autism-mercury hypothesis. Dr. El Dahr discussed the immunological parallels with autism and reviewed the epidemiological and toxicological research on thimerosal.

In California, rigorous standards for reporting of autism were in place because social benefits were tied to the accurate diagnosis, so the increases are very likely to be real. During the first 25 years, 6,527 cases of autism were reported; but it took only three years during the 1990s to add 6,596 additional cases. Erom 1987 to 1998 there was a 273% increase in autism cases in California. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and American Academy of Autism released an “Autism Alarm” stating that one in 166 children in the U.S. have autistic spectrum disorder (ASD). Currently, one-sixth of all children under the age of 18 have a developmental disability. That is nearly 20% of the population who may not be able to be productive members of society.

Much of the data she presented is available on

The mercury-autism hypothesis was proposed in part due to the analysis of the actual doses of thimerosal received by children after the change in the vaccination schedule. In individuals with a genetic susceptibility, such as a defect in the enzymes responsible for detoxifying heavy metals, prenatal and early postnatal exposure to mercury leads to neurologic damage resulting in autistic symptoms. Acrodynia or pink baby syndrome from exposure to calomel or mercury in teething powder presented similarly to autism. Other potential sources of early exposure in the fetus or infant include maternal amalgams, fish consumption, eardrops, and nasal drops. Vaccines present a significant source of exposure in RhoGam, influenza vaccines during pregnancy, and childhood immunizations. The maximum exposure in the first six months of life is 187.5 micrograms of mercury, far exceeding limits set by the World Health Organization (WHO) and the environmental Protection Agency (EPA). These limits are set for methylmercury primarily from fish, not for ethylmercury from vaccines. Questions remain about the relative toxicity of each. According to the EPA, the “safe” daily level of mercury exposure for a 5 kg, 2-month-old infant is 0.5 micrograms or 0.1 micrograms per kg. The typical 2-month vaccination schedule includes diphtheria and tetanus (DtaP), Haemophilus infliicmac tybe B (Hib), and hepatitis B vaccines. Combined, these vaccines contain 62.5 micrograms of mercury or 125 times the EPA limits for a single-day exposure. It should be remembered that, like lead, there may be no safe level and children are more susceptible to toxic effects than adults.

Dr. El Dahr advises us that there may be large variations in genetic susceptibility to exposures. She also argues that there is a strong biologic plausibility to the mercury-autism hypothesis. Symptoms of mercury toxicity parallel autism. Beside the neurotoxic effects, there appears to be correlation between the immunopathology of both autism and mercury toxicity. She defines immunopathology to include immune deficiency and dysfunction with defective or ineffective responses, hypersensitivity with an overactive response out of proportion to potential damage and autoimmunity or inappropriate reaction to self. These specific immune abnormalities have been found in 30%-70% of autistic children.

She also reviewed the problematic Institute of Medicine recommendations and analysis of the thimerosal issue. Further information can be found at


Paul Harch, MD, is Clinical Assistant Professor and Director of the Louisiana State University Hyperbaric Medicine Fellowship and Hyperbaric Department at Medicine Center of Louisiana, New Orleans. He pioneered the application of hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) for cerebral palsy and autism. He presented his data using Single Photon Emission Computerized Tomography (SPECT) scan imaging pre and post HBOT for children from the autistic spectrum disorder. His results show both clinical and radiological improvement in brain function. He commented on the “oxygen paradox.” Contrary to expectation, he reported, highdose oxygen reduces oxidative stress. Mechanisms explored include the potential for LlBOT to influence DNA expression. Dr. Harch’s website is


Stephanie Cave, MD, is on the Clinical Faculty of Louisiana State University Medical School, and since 1996 has treated over 2,300 children with autistic spectrum disorder. Her recent book, What Your Doctor May Not TcII You About Children’s Vaccinations, outlines the data and debate in this highly charged field.

Dr. Cave also reported on the increased incidence of autism in the last 30 years from 1/10,000 children to 1/150 children and 1/30 males in the United States.

The major toxicity from mercury, she reports, is its ability to tightly bind to the sulfhydryl groups enzymatic or structural proteins, severely inhibiting enzyme function and structural integrity. Ethylmercury from vaccines exceeds Wl 10, EPA, PDA, and the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) limits for exposure. The limits for an average 5 kg child range from 0.5 meg/day for the EPA and PDA, to 1.5 meg/day for ATSDR and 16.5 meg/week for WHO. The administration of the 2-month schedule for the average child as DTaP, 1 lib, Hep B is 62.5 meg, or 125 times the safe limits set by government agencies.

Dr. Case quoted Dr Boyd’s research on the paradoxically low levels of mercury (0.47 ppm in 94 cases vs 3.63 ppm in controls) in the first haircut of autistic children despite higher prenatal mercury exposure than controls from amalgams, fish consumption, and Rho D immunoglobulin. This implies an impaired detoxification and excretion capacity in autistic cases. Dr. Cave analyzed conflicting recommendations and reports from the CDC, and from epidemiologic reports concluding that there is a causal relationship between childhood vaccines containing thimerosal and nrurodevelopmental disorders in children. She critiqued the Lancet Study, which concluded no toxic effect from thimerosal for numerous reasons including small sample size (33), blood drawn on day 7, not true peak level on day 3, variability in amounts of thimerosal exposure, and reduced exposure compared to current vaccine schedules. The population-based cohort study from Denmark published in JAMA reported no increased risk of autism with thimerosal. The authors of the study were affiliated with the state-run Statcns Serum Institut. Eighty percent of its profits on $120 million in annual revenue is from vaccines. The methodology was also called into question because of inconsistencies in the reporting system.

A case control study of 221 children with autism and 18 controls found that after a DMSA challenge test, vaccinated autistic children had three times the level of mercury in their urine compared to controls.

Dr. Cave reviewed her clinical approach to dealing with ASD children. Besides a thorough developmental history, she does a laboratory evaluation including a Complete Blood Count (CBC), Metabolic panel 7 (SMA7), liver functions, cellular trace minerals and toxic metals, hair metals, pre- and postprovocation urinary metals, urine organic acids, stool analysis, amino acid and fatty acids panels, serum copper, plasma zinc (often finding an elevated copper:zinc ratio), serum ceruloplasmin, glutathione and sulfate levels, Immunoglobulin G (IgG) food allergies, myelin basic protein antibodies, and viral studies (Human Herpes virus 6 [HHV6], EBV, etc.).

Her common findings include low cellular minerals, elevated cellular metals, elevated auto antibodies, positive viral titers, low plasma sulfate and glutathione, impaired detoxification chemistry, low plasma amino acids and abnormal organic acids, low unsaturated fatty acids, low vitamin A, elevated coppenzinc ratio, elevated CD4 cells, low CD8 cells and elevated CD4/CD8 ratio, low natural killer (NK) cells, unbalanced gut flora, multiple Candida species, and parasites. Hair metals are often elevated except for mercury due to impaired detoxification and excretion.

Dr. Cave’s treatment protocols include casein, gluten, allergy- and seafood-free diets, removal of amalgam fillings, and detoxification support. Key to the treatment is careful detoxification of heavy metals after repletion of cellular nutrients, repair of gut dysfunction and enhancement of liver detoxification chemistry. Supplements and treatments may include multivitamins and minerals, essential fatty acids (EPA/DHA/GLA), antioxidants, selenium, xinc, magnesium, digestive enzymes, vitamins C, E, A, and CoQlO. Kowel ecology restoration may include antifungals, antibiotics, herbs, probiotics, and glutamine. Enhancement of liver detoxification is facilitated by Epsom salt baths (MgSO^sub 4^, magnesium sulfate creams, and oral, intravenous, or topical glutathione.

Mercury and other heavy metal detoxification is achieved after a DMSA provocation challenge of 20 mg/kg with a 10-hour urine collection. DMSA is given at a dose of 10 mg/kg every 8 hours for 3 days with 11 days off. The cycle is repeated 4 times, followed by another provocation challenge test.

Another critical aspect of autistic spectrum disorder is impaired methylation chemistry, which affects methylation of proteins, repair of DNA, as well as the synthesis of glutathione affecting detoxification, synthesis of membrane phospholipids and dopamine binding to CNS receptors. Collectively, these effects can explain much of the clinical manifestations of ASD. Multiple polymorphisms of the methionine cycle pathway affect methylation capacity including MTl IFR 667 C to T (methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase), combined MTHKK 677 C to T and 1298 A to C, and MTRR 66A to G (methionine synthase reductase). These are found at increased frequency in the autistic population. Mercury binds to methionine synthase causing severe downstream metabolic dysfunction, Because of these polymorphisms and the toxic effects on 1 Ig on these enzymes, the production of methylcobalamin impaired the entire methylation cycle leading to reduced levels of homocysteine, methylmalonic acid, glutathione, and more. Methylcobalamin (B12) has multiple neuroprotective functions including enhanced methylation facilitating phosphatidyl choline formation in membrane phospholipids, and prevention of nitric oxide toxicity, which protects neurons against NMDA receptor-mediated glutamate toxicity.

Mercury further exacerbates impairment in glutathione synthesis by depleting glutathione in lymphocytes and monocytes leading to increased risk of the immuno and cytotoxic effects of mercury. The impairment in glutathione synthesis through the inhibition of the methionine cycle and the depletion of intracellular glutathione is compounded further by the increased frequency of polymorphisms affecting glutathione antioxidant capacity such as glutathione-S-transferase Ml null (GSTMl null), glutathione-S-transferasc Tl null (GSTTl null), and a double null GST Ml and GST Tl polymorphism.

Dr. Cave presented a number of cases where these principles were applied with significant benefit and reductions in autistic symptoms.


Robert Nash, MD, is a practicing neurologist and the Chairman of the American Board of Metal Toxicology. After an overview, he reviewed mercury-associated diseases, mechanisms, controversies, and therapeutic options.

Major sources of mercury exposure include dental amalgams (vapor), fish (methylmercury), and vaccines (ethylmercury). Toxic effects, he suggests, spread across a broad spectrum of diseases including autism, Alzheimer’s disease, ALS, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson’s disease, neurodevelopmental diseases, nephrotoxicity, and cancer. Reporting on the review in the New England Journal of Medicine, he reports that the fetal brain is more susceptible than the adult brain to mercury-induced damage including the division and migration of neuronal cells and disruption of the cytoarchitecture of the developing brain.

The mechanism of mercury toxicity in the adult brain may be related to proteins involved in mercury excretion including glutathione, glutathione transferase, metallothionine, and Apo E. Glutathione carries Hg through biliary transport for excretion. Ug2+ rapidly oxidizes glutathione. Glutathione transferase is an enzyme that may be implicated in Alzheimer’s disease. However, most interesting were recent findings that Apo E 4 may increase risk for Alzheimer’s disease because it has an impaired ability to bind mercury and transport it from the brain. Apo E 4 has no binding sites for mercury because it contains arginine at both positions 112 and 158 of the lipoprotein. Apo E 2 has cysteine at both those sites enabling it to bind and transport mercury from the brain. Dr. Nash suggests that most if not all aberrant biochemistry in the Alzheimer’s brain can be mimicked by mercury. The diagnostic hallmarks of the Alzheimer’s brain can be produced by Hg concentrations lower than reported in human brain tissues. He further concludes that the biological plausibility of Hg as a causal factor in Alzheimer’s disease is more complete than thimerosal causation of autism.

Regarding amalgam fillings, Dr. Nash concludes that due to the enhancement of mercury toxicity and retention by factors found in the diet, antibiotics, other toxicants such as cadmium and lead, and genetic susceptibilities, no level of mercury exposure from amalgams can be considered without risk.

He also reviewed the literature linking mercury and cardiovascular disease. Two studies have reported increased risk of myocardial infarction while another has showed no risk. However, the data presented on idiopathic cardiomyopathy was among the most compelling. Biopsy samples found 12,000 times the level of antimony and 22,000 times the level of mercury in idiopathic cardiomyopathy compared to controls with viral, ischemic or hypertensive cardiomyopathy.

Mechanisms of toxicity include damage to DNA, RNA, mitochondria, enzymes, immunopathology and autoimmunity, and generation of oxidative stress. Mercury can act as a metabolic uncoupler, hapten or immune sensitizing small molecule, enzyme inhibitor. It also depletes glutathione and ascorbate, and inhibits thiamine (Bl) and pyridoxine (B6). Mercury can also affect the CNS by concentrating in the CSF and the kidney by reducing concentrating capacity. It can also inhibit GTP binding affecting brain tubulin microtubules reducing nerve function and communication, which can lead to the development of neurofibrillary tangles. Mercury also inhibits nerve growth, and passes easily through the placental barrier. Dopamineric activity in the brain is reduced with mercury.

Dr. Nash concluded on an optimistic note. First he suggests that there appears to be a subset of the population that cannot effectively excrete mercury and is at greater risk than the general population, and that this susceptibility is likely due to genetic differences, diet, exposure to other toxicants, antibiotics, etc. Given that susceptibility, he argues that mercury is a risk factor in many diseases, but can be safely measured, and the body detoxified, mitigating some of its toxic effects. He calls for a more research and improved detoxification agents.


Works Cited

1. Lindh U. Removal of dental amalgam and other metal alloys supported by aniioxidant therapy alleviates symptoms and improves quality of” life in patients with amalgamassociated ill health. Neuroendocrinology Letters. 2002; 23(5/6):459-482.

2. Stejskal V. Metal-specific lymphocytes: biomarkers of sensitivity in man. Neuroendocrinology Letters. 1999;20:289-298.

3. Mutter J. Amalgam studies: disregarding basic principles of mercury toxicity. In! J Hyg Environ Health. 2004 (27); 391-397.

4. Holmes AS, Blaxill MF, Haley BE. Reduced levels of mercury in first baby haircuts of autistic children. MJ Toxicol. 2003 Jul-Aug;22(4):277-85.

5. S Bernard. Autism: A Novel Form of Mercury Poisoning. Medical Hypothesis. 2001:56 (4): 462-471.

6. Holmes. Reduced Levels of Mercury in First Baby Haircuts of Autistic Children. In! J Toxicology. 22:277-285, 2003.

7. Geier M. Thimerosal in Childhood Vaccines. Neurodevelopment Disorders and Heart Disease in the United States. J Amer Physic Surg 8(1), Spring 2003,6-11.

8. Pichichero ME, Cernichiari E, Lopreiato J, Treanor J. Mercury concentrations and metabolism in infants receiving vaccines containing thimerosal: a descriptive study. Lancet. 2002 Nov 30;360(9347):1737-41.

9. Hviid A. Association between thimerosal containing vaccine and autism. JAMA. 2003; 290:1763-1766,

10. Rimland B, Bernard S. Letters. JAMA. 2004;291:180-181.

11. Bradstreet J. A case-control study of mercury burden in children with autistic spectrum disorders. J Amer Physic Surg. Volume 8, Numbers, Summer 2003,

12. Clarkson TW, Magos L, Myers GJ. The toxicology of mercury-current exposures and clinical manifestations. NEnglJMed. 2003 Oct 30;349(18): 1731-7.

13. Godfrey ME, Wojcik DP, Krone CA. Apolipoprotein F, genotyping as a potential biomarker for mercury neurotoxicity. J Alzheimers Dis. 2003 Jun;5(3):189-95.

14. Frustaci A, Magnavita N, Chimenti C, Caldarulo M, Sabbioni E, Pietra R, Cellini C, Possati GF, Maseri A. Marked elevation of myocardial trace elements in idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy compared with secondary cardiac dysfunction. J Am Coll Cardiol 1999;33(6):1578-83.


Mark Hyman, MD

Mark H. Hyman, MD, is the Editor in Chief of Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine and Medical Director at Canyon Ranch in the Berkshires.

Copyright InnoVision Communications Nov/Dec 2004


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Boston University College of Engineering; Low levels of antibiotics cause multidrug resistance in ‘superbugs’

Anonymous. NewsRx Health (Mar 7, 2010): 108.

2010 MAR 7 – ( — For years, doctors have warned patients to finish their antibiotic prescriptions or risk a renewed infection by a “superbug” that can mount a more powerful defense against the same drug. But a new study by Boston University biomedical engineers indicates that treating bacteria with levels of antibiotics insufficient to kill them produces germs that are cross-resistant to a wide range of antibiotics.

In the Feb. 12 issue of Molecular Cell, research led by Boston University Professor James J. Collins details for the first time the biomolecular process that produces superbugs. When administered in lethal levels, antibiotics trigger a fatal chain reaction within the bacteria that shreds the cell’s DNA. But, when the level of antibiotic is less than lethal the same reaction causes DNA mutations that are not only survivable, but actually protect the bacteria from numerous antibiotics beyond the one it was exposed to.

“In effect, what doesn’t kill them makes them stronger,” said Collins, who is also a Howard Hughes Medical Institute investigator. “These findings drive home the need for tighter regulations on the use of antibiotics, especially in agriculture; for doctors to be more disciplined in their prescription of antibiotics; and for patients to be more disciplined in following their prescriptions.”

Two years ago, Collins – together with graduate student Michael Kohanski and post-doctoral fellow Mark DePristo — proved that when applied in lethal doses, antibiotics stimulate the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) molecules, or free radicals that damage DNA, protein and lipids in bacterial cells, contributing to their demise. In the new study, the same co-authors demonstrated that the free radicals produced by a sub-lethal dose of an antibiotic accelerate mutations that protect against a variety of antibiotics other than the administered drug.

“We know free radicals damage DNA, and when that happens, DNA repair systems get called into play that are known to introduce mistakes, or mutations,” said Collins. “We arrived at the hypothesis that sub-lethal levels of antibiotics could bump up the mutation rate via the production of free radicals, and lead to the dramatic emergence of multi-drug resistance.”

Testing their hypothesis on strains of E. coli and Staphylococcus, the researchers administered sub-lethal levels of five kinds of antibiotics and showed that each boosted levels of ROS and mutations in the bacterial DNA. They next conducted a series of experiments to show that bacteria initially subjected to a sub-lethal dose of one of the antibiotics exhibited cross-resistance to a number of the other antibiotics. Finally, they sequenced the genes known to cause resistance to each antibiotic and pinpointed the mutations that protected the bacteria. Ironically, the researchers discovered that in some cases the bacteria were still be susceptible to the original antibiotic.

“The sub-lethal levels dramatically drove up the mutation levels, and produced a wide array of mutations,” Collins observed. “Because you’re not killing with the antibiotics, you’re allowing many different types of mutants to survive. We discovered that in this zoo of mutants, you can actually have a mutant that could be killed by the antibiotic that produced the mutation but, as a result of its mutation, be resistant to other antibiotics.”

The group’s findings underscore the potentially serious consequences to public health of administering antibiotics in low or incomplete doses. This is common practice among farmers who apply low levels of antibiotics to livestock feed; doctors who prescribe low levels of antibiotics as placebos for people with viral infections; and patients who don’t follow the full course of antibiotic treatment.

The study’s findings may ultimately lead to the development of new antibiotic treatments enhanced with compounds designed to prevent the emergence of multi-drug resistance. For example, one potential treatment might inhibit the DNA damage repair systems that lead to the problematic mutations, while another might boost production of cell-destroying free radicals so that a low dose of antibiotic is sufficient to kill targeted bacterial cells.

Keywords: Agricultural, Agriculture, Antibacterial, Antibiotic, Antimicrobial Resistance, Bioengineering, Biomedical Engineering, Biomedicine, Drug Development, Drug Resistance, Engineering, Livestock, Therapy, Treatment, Boston University College of Engineering.

This article was prepared by NewsRx Health editors from staff and other reports. Copyright 2010, NewsRx Health via

(c)Copyright 2010, NewsRx Health via


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November 28, 2012

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Paul Fassa
Sept 30, 2012

This is not alternative health conspiratorial conjecture. This has been officially recorded but barely reported. So here is a sampling of recorded disease breakouts among children who were vaccinated for that disease. Enforcing or increasing vaccine schedules does not really prevent disease; it only increases the chances of worse health or gravely critical adverse reactions, ranging from autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) to decreased immunity and increased poor health.

Some Known Outbreaks of Vaccinated Kids

The most recent outbreak occurred in California. The disease was whooping cough, or pertussis. The vaccination that has become a regularly scheduled pediatric ritual is a combination of three vaccines known as DTaP or DTP, which stands for Diptheria – Tetenus – acellular Pertussis.

This three-in-one vaccine cocktail is supposed to prevent diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis, or whooping cough. The pediatric vaccination schedule calls for administering this cocktail at two…

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Hidden Agendas


Uploaded by wrxstiable on Jul 27, 2009

This is true and its happening now. Please open your eyes people before we have no rights left to oppose. Save our next generation from being slaves. Global warming is a lie , It is part of agenda 21 of UN. UN will control the future world and soon humanity would be put on trial for ruining the earth and not preserving it for the generations to come. This is the mother of scams. Media is our enemy. All big names like cnn, fox, cnbc, bbc and many more have signed a contract with UN to keep their secrets and be their alloys in this so called “earth saving mission”.


People & Blogs

This video uses copyrighted material in a manner that does not require approval of the copyright holder. It is a fair use under copyright law.Copyright Disclaimer Under Section…

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Ebola Virus: The Global Elite’s Bio-Weapon Scheme for 90 Percent Depopulation

Sep 5th, 2012 0 Comment

Susanne Posel
Occupy Corporatism
September 5, 2012

The Ebola virus mysteriously appeared in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) in 1976 and has sporadically reappeared in the area without explanation ever since. Mainstream medical professional believe that eating monkeys who are infected with Ebola is the initial mode of transmission. However this is accepted speculation because the scientific community agrees that the natural reservoir of the virus is unknown and therefore knowledge of transmission is only hypothesized.

In July of this year, a sudden outbreak of the Ebola virus surfaced, killing 14 people. The World Health Organization (WHO), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and Uganda’s Ministry of Health came together to control the unexpected eruption.

Ugandan President Yoweri Museveni made a formal statement warning his citizens: “I therefore appeal to you to be vigilant. Avoid shaking of hands; do not take on burying somebody that has died from symptoms which look like Ebola. Instead, call the health workers to be the ones to do it. And avoid promiscuity because these sicknesses can also go through sex.”

Dr. Paul Roddy, Medecins Sans Frontieres (MSF), a French charity, asserts that the outbreak of the Ebola virus in Uganda has been stabilized, however an additional outbreak could erupt in another location. Roddy believes that natives eating bush-meat were the catalyst for spread. He assumes that monkeys who have eaten infected bats, that were then consumed by Ugandans was the chain of infection.

Eight days later, in the DRC, a new strain of the Ebola virus has surfaced according to medical volunteers from MSF. It is not the same strain as was discovered in Uganda.

This new epidemic is being monitored because “not every person who develops the disease will develop clear symptoms that are recognized as Ebola. For the moment it seems that there are not that many cases but the exact number of cases is unknown,” said Anja de Weggheleire, representative of MSF.

Overseen by the US Department of Defense (DoD) under the Transformational Medical Technologies program (TMT) of the Defense Threat Reduction Agency and the National Institutes of Health (NIH) have spent millions of dollars conducting scientific research into the Ebola virus, its potential for being turned into a bio-weapon and certain vaccine efforts through two drug corporations, Massachusetts-based Sarepta Therapeutics and Tekmira Pharmaceuticals of Canada . Then the funding was abruptly cut.

The TMT creates relationships with private sector biotech firms, pharmaceutical corporations and academic institutions, as well as other government agencies to advance biological warfare, research viral and biological weapons and estimate threat levels of all biological agents based on ability to infect and effectiveness of devastation.

The DoD suddenly stopped funding Ebola vaccine research through these two corporations due to financial constraints. With the sporadic nature of Ebola outbreaks, combined with the absolute deadly nature of the virus makes it a hard sell to large pharmaceutical corporations because it “isn’t a huge customer base and big pharma is obviously interested in big profits. So these niche products which are important for biodefense are really driven by small companies,” according to Larry Zeitlin, president of Mapp Biophamracueticals, who is developing therapies to combat Ebola.

Mysteriously, microbiologists and virologists who were involved with research into immunology and bioweapons have either gone missing or found dead over two decades. Some of these scientists had ties to the Howard Hughes Medical Institute, the NIH, the DoD – just to name a few. While the number of experts involved in infectious disease research having died under questionable circumstances has risen exponentially, the US government has remained non-chalant.

In November of 2002, DynCorp was given a $322 million contract to develop, produce and store vaccines for the DoD. DynCorp has been connected to PROMIS, a software program designed to identify and target specific individuals for operations known only to the US government.

One of the most shocking calls for depopulation came from Dr. Eric R. Pianka, scientist at the University of Texas back in 2006. Pianka was speaking to an audience of fellow scientists, students, and professors when he proclaimed that 90% of the world’s population needed to be killed using a weaponized form of the Ebola virus. He stated that an airborne version of Ebola would be more effective than the HIV/AIDS virus has been since its release in 1979 because of the speed in which the victim dies.

If Pianka’s nightmare scenario were to be carried out, how could it be done with the most efficiency and impact?

During the hype over possible 2012 Olympic Games terrorist schemes, the Lieutenant Colonel Brian Fahy advised the UK government that it was “feasible” that drones equipped with biological weapons could be remote-controlled and aimed over the skies of London during the Games. Fahy said: “An Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) can be put in a backpack. They come in all sorts of sizes and it’s feasible they could be filled with something noxious and flown by remote-control.”

In preparation for the possibility, Elite soldiers wore biochemical suits, gloves and masks during training exercises provided by a top-secret military research facility in Porton Down, Wilshire. Fahy explains: “We have worked up a comprehensive plan to protect against the potential hijacking of a commercial airliner down to slow-moving microlights or radio-controlled planes.”

Thanks to the National Defense Authorization Act (NDAA), 6 national drone test sites were established to coincide with the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) announcement that by 2015 at least 30,000 drones will be in American skies surveying US citizens in the name of safety, according to Janet Napolitano.

President Obama signed the FAA Modernization and Reform Act in February of this year, demanding that the FAA “integrate operation of drones” into National Airspace by 2015.

These drones will be in civilian airspace, with “the potential for invasive surveillance of daily activities,” says House Representative Ed Markey.

Just last June, researchers at the University of Texas demonstrated to officials at the DHS how drones could be hacked into through their navigation systems.

By sending a false Global Positioning System (GPS) signal the drones were tricked into taking a different course.

To infect a large amount of people (like the population of a large US city) with a bio-weapon like the Ebola virus, drones could be used to spray over-head with ease. Because of the immediacy of infection, the population of cities affect would experience a dramatic reduction nearly instantly. In fact, it would take nearly a week for officials to even respond to this type of pandemic and by that time, thousands of Americans would be have succumbed to the Ebola virus.

Because of the effectiveness of the mortality rate of the Ebola virus, it is the perfect bio-weapon. And if combined with the recent implementation of drones in US skies, could this be a combination we should be concerned about?

Globalists like Ted Turner and Bill Gates have already stated publicly that they want a significant amount of the world’s population reduced – even as far as by 90% in the name of climate change and reallocation of resources. How could they accomplish such a feat without the aid of a bio-weapon? And furthermore, how could they ensure that large enough amounts of the population are exposed to the bio-weapon for maximum effect?

Perhaps aerial drones equipped with the Ebola virus would be flown over American cities, then the global Elite could sit back and wait. Once the virus has killed the majority of the population, the next agenda for global governance can unfold.

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Hidden Agendas

Published on Apr 27, 2012 by CHANNEL3X

Montauk Project



This video uses copyrighted material in a manner that does not require approval of the copyright holder. It is a fair use under copyright law.Copyright Disclaimer Under Section 107 of the Copyright Act 1976, allowance is made for fair use for purposes such as criticism, comment, news reporting, teaching, scholarship, and research. Fair use is a use permitted by copyright statute that might otherwise be infringing. Non-profit, educationalor personal use tips the balance in favor of fair use.

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New World Next Week
August 30, 2012

Welcome to – the video series from Corbett Report and Media Monarchy that covers some of the most important developments in open source intelligence news. This week:

Story #1: Smart Meter Revolt: Upgrade Meets Growing Resistance In Texas
Smart Meter Movement Stirs Rowdy Debate In Texas
Smart Meters on Pubic Utility Commission of Texas
20 More Ways You Are Being Spied On

Story #2: Gates Foundation Funds ‘Anti-Vaccine Surveillance and Alert System’ and ‘On-Demand Vaccine Delivery via Low-Cost Unmanned Aerial Vehicles’
Gates Foundation awards 1.7 million to inspire supply chain innovation
Bill Gates Pays Media to Portray Him As a Saint

Story #3: 16th Non-Aligned Movement (NAM) Summit opens today
Wikipedia: Non-Aligned Movement
Netanyahu: NAM summit in Tehran is a disgrace to…

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The Extinction Protocol

August 29, 2012HEALTHOne of the worst outbreaks of West Nile virus to ever hit the United States continues to expand, with 66 deaths and 1,590 illnesses reported as of Tuesday, according to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Cases have jumped 40 percent nationwide since just last week, the agency added. Cases have now reached their highest level since the mosquito-borne virus was first found in the United States in 1999, agency officials said in a Wednesday press briefing. While almost all states have reported at least one case of West Nile illness, over 70 percent of cases have come from six states — Texas, South Dakota, Mississippi, Oklahoma, Louisiana, and Michigan. The outbreak has hit hardest in Texas, where nearly half (45 percent) of the total U.S. cases have been reported. “The number of people reported with West Nile virus continues to rise,”…

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August 8, 2012

The pineal gland (also called the pineal body, epiphysis cerebri, epiphysis or the “third eye”) is a small endocrine gland in the vertebrate brain. It produces the serotonin derivative melatonin, a hormone that affects the modulation of wake/sleep patterns and seasonal functions. Its shape resembles a tiny pine cone (hence its name), and it is located near the center of the brain, between the two hemispheres, tucked in a groove where the two rounded thalamic bodies join.The Secret: What they don’t want you to KNOW!

Every human being’s Pineal Gland or The third eye can be activated to spiritual world frequencies and enables you to have the sense of all knowing, godlike euphoria and oneness all around you. A pineal gland once tuned into to proper frequencies with help of meditation, yoga or various esoteric, occult methods, enables a person to travel into other dimensions, popularly…

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Vaccines, Autism and the Thimerosal Scandal

Browsing online tonight i was looking into some things when i came across a website about vaccines and the Autism Link and had a quick look. This lead me to a video of Robert F Kennedy Jnr Speaking about thimerosal and the link to Autism. I decided to have a quick look at his website, and found some relevant readings he had posted.

ThimerosalScandalFINAL is a downloadable PDF that i downloaded, read and decided to link people to.  I think that every parent with a child on the Autism Spectrum, with Autism, or any other behavioural issue to read this and his further relevant documents regarding this issue.

I urge parents to research for themselves what INDEPENDENT scientists who are not paid government staff or contacts (or funded by government) have to say on this issue.

Anyways, a long day ahead of me tomorrow but i wanted to get this file out there and back in the public scene as its got some good credible info.


Note: This information booklet (PDF) is shared under the Fair Use Policy and is freely obtained at its original posting site by Robert F Kennedy Jnr, Free of Charge. No money will be received by the sharing of this information.

Australian Bill Allows for Sterilizations Without Parental Consent at Any Age

March 6, 2012

Anthony Gucciardi

Following the call by ethicists for after-birth abortions and the press explosion surrounding the ‘Euthanasia Coaster‘, new legislation from Australia is now paving the way for children of any age to consent to sterilization — without parental consent. That’s right, if a psychiatrist determines that a child under the age of 18 years is ‘sufficiently mature’, they will be sterilized without any say from the parents. Again, there is no age minimum, as long as they are ‘mature‘ enough.

The legislation, known as the ‘Draft Mental Health Bill 2011′, also allows for 12-year-olds to consent to psychosurgery and electroshock. You can view the bill for yourself on the Australian Mental Health government website. Written by the Western Australia Mental Health Commission (MHC) and overseen by Mental Health Commissioner and clinical psychologist Mr Eddie Bartnik, objections can still be submitted to Australian parliamentary members in each state until March 9th.

READ the full News Article 

Action will need to be taken to make sure the bill does not pass. Objections can be sent to the Mental Health Commission and to Australian state legislators. Feedback options come to a close on the 9th of March at 5pm, so it is important to voice your opposition today. Here are a few ways to contact the Mental Health Commission and state your objection to the bill:
  • Mail: GPO Box X2299 Perth Business Centre, W.A. 6847

This article first appeared at Natural Society


If this is not a reason for Families and Mums to get out there and protest i don’t know what is? We have lost our right to CHOOSE to vaccinate our children already, Mandatory Vaccinations are now in Australia. Now we have this to deal with.

– AussieActivist

About This List
Animal ingredients and their alternatives helps consumers avoid animal ingredients in food, cosmetics, and other products. Please note that it is not all-inclusive as there are thousands of technical and patented names for ingredient variations. Furthermore, many ingredients known by one name can be of animal, vegetable, or synthetic origin. If you have a question regarding an ingredient in a product, call the manufacturer. Good sources of additional information are the Consumer’s Dictionary of Cosmetic Ingredients, the Consumer’s Dictionary of Food Additives, or an unabridged dictionary. All of these are available at most libraries.
Adrenaline – Hormone from adrenal glands of hogs, cattle, and sheep. In medicine. Alternatives: synthetics.Alanine – See Amino Acids.

Albumen – In eggs, milk, muscles, blood, and many vegetable tissues and fluids. In cosmetics, albumen is usually derived from egg whites and used as a coagulating agent. May cause allergic reaction. In cakes, cookies, candies, etc. Egg whites sometimes used in “clearing” wines. Derivative: Albumin.

Albumin – See Albumen.

Alcloxa – See Allantoin.

Aldioxa – See Allantoin.

Aliphatic Alcohol – See Lanolin and Vitamin A.

Allantoin – Uric acid from cows, most mammals. Also in many plants (especially comfrey). In cosmetics (especially creams and lotions) and used in treatment of wounds and ulcers. Derivatives: Alcloxa, Aldioxa. Alternatives: extract of comfrey root, synthetics.

Alligator Skin – See Leather.

Alpha-Hydroxy Acids – Any one of several acids used as an exfoliant and in anti-wrinkle products. Lactic acid may be animal-derived (see Lactic Acid). Alternatives: glycolic acid, citric acid, and salicylic acid are plant- or fruit-derived.

Ambergris – From whale intestines. Used as a fixative in making perfumes and as a flavoring in foods and beverages. Alternatives: synthetic or vegetable fixatives.

Amino Acids – The building blocks of protein in all animals and plants. In cosmetics, vitamins, supplements, shampoos, etc. Alternatives: synthetics, plant sources.

Aminosuccinate Acid – See Aspartic Acid.

Angora – Hair from the Angora rabbit or goat. Used in clothing. Alternatives: synthetic fibers.

Animal Fats and Oils – In foods, cosmetics, etc. Highly allergenic. Alternatives: olive oil, wheat germ oil, coconut oil, flaxseed oil, almond oil, safflower oil, etc.

Animal Hair – In some blankets, mattresses, brushes, furniture, etc. Alternatives: vegetable and synthetic fibers.

Arachidonic Acid – A liquid unsaturated fatty acid that is found in liver, brain, glands, and fat of animals and humans. Generally isolated from animal liver. Used in companion animal food for nutrition and in skin creams and lotions to soothe eczema and rashes. Alternatives: synthetics, aloe vera, tea tree oil, calendula ointment.

Arachidyl Proprionate – A wax that can be from animal fat. Alternatives: peanut or vegetable oil.

Aspartic Acid. Aminosuccinate Acid – Can be animal or plant source (e.g., molasses). Sometimes synthesized for commercial purposes.

Bee Pollen – Microsporic grains in seed plants gathered by bees then collected from the legs of bees. Causes allergic reactions in some people. In nutritional supplements, shampoos, toothpastes, deodorants. Alternatives: synthetics, plant amino acids, pollen collected from plants.

Bee Products – Produced by bees for their own use. Bees are selectively bred. Culled bees are killed. A cheap sugar is substituted for their stolen honey. Millions die as a result. Their legs are often torn off by pollen collection trap doors.

Beeswax/Honeycomb – Wax obtained from melting honeycomb with boiling water, straining it, and cooling it. From virgin bees. Very cheap and widely used. May be harmful to the skin. In lipsticks and many other cosmetics (especially face creams, lotions, mascara, eye creams and shadows, face makeups, nail whiteners, lip balms, etc.). Derivatives: Cera Flava. Alternatives: paraffin, vegetable oils and fats. Ceresin, aka ceresine, aka earth wax. (Made from the mineral ozokerite. Replaces beeswax in cosmetics. Also used to wax paper, to make polishing cloths, in dentistry for taking wax impressions, and in candle-making.) Also, carnauba wax (from the Brazilian palm tree; used in many cosmetics, including lipstick; rarely causes allergic reactions). Candelilla wax (from candelilla plants; used in many cosmetics, including lipstick; also in the manufacture of rubber and phonograph records, in waterproofing and writing inks; no known toxicity). Japan wax (Vegetable wax. Japan tallow. Fat from the fruit of a tree grown in Japan and China.).

Benzoic Acid – In almost all vertebrates and in berries. Used as a preservative in mouthwashes, deodorants, creams, aftershave lotions, etc. Alternatives: cranberries, gum benzoin (tincture) from the aromatic balsamic resin from trees grown in China, Sumatra, Thailand, and Cambodia.

Beta Carotene – See Carotene.

Biotin/Vitamin H/Vitamin B Factor – In every living cell and in larger amounts in milk and yeast. Used as a texturizer in cosmetics, shampoos, and creams. Alternatives: plant sources.

Blood – From any slaughtered animal. Used as adhesive in plywood, also found in cheese-making, foam rubber, intravenous feedings, and medicines. Possibly in foods such as lecithin. Alternatives: synthetics, plant sources.

Boar Bristles – Hair from wild or captive hogs. In “natural” toothbrushes and bath and shaving brushes. Alternatives: vegetable fibers, nylon, the peelu branch or peelu gum (Asian, available in the U.S.; its juice replaces toothpaste).

Bone Char – Animal bone ash. Used in bone china and often to make sugar white. Serves as the charcoal used in aquarium filters. Alternatives: synthetic tribasic calcium phosphate.

Bone Meal – Crushed or ground animal bones. In some fertilizers. In some vitamins and supplements as a source of calcium. In toothpastes. Alternatives: plant mulch, vegetable compost, dolomite, clay, vegetarian vitamins.

Calciferol – See Vitamin D.

Calfskin – See Leather

Caprylamine Oxide – See Caprylic Acid.

Capryl Betaine – See Caprylic Acid.

Caprylic Acid – A liquid fatty acid from cow’s or goat’s milk. Also from palm and coconut oil, other plant oils. In perfumes, soaps. Derivatives: Caprylic Triglyceride, Caprylamine Oxide, Capryl Betaine. Alternatives: plant sources.

Caprylic Triglyceride – See Caprylic Acid.

Carbamide – See Urea.

Carmine/Cochineal/Carminic Acid – Red pigment from the crushed female cochineal insect. Reportedly, 70,000 beetles must be killed to produce one pound of this red dye. Used in cosmetics, shampoos, red apple sauce, and other foods (including red lollipops and food coloring). May cause allergic reaction. Alternatives: beet juice (used in powders, rouges, shampoos; no known toxicity); alkanet root (from the root of this herb-like tree; used as a red dye for inks, wines, lip balms, etc.; no known toxicity. Can also be combined to make a copper or blue coloring). (See Colors.)

Carminic Acid – See Carmine.

Carotene/Provitamin A/ Beta Carotene – A pigment found in many animal tissues and in all plants. Used as a coloring in cosmetics and in the manufacture of vitamin A.

Casein/Caseinate/Sodium Caseinate – Milk protein. In “non-dairy” creamers, soy cheese, many cosmetics, hair preparations, beauty masks. Alternatives: soy protein, soy milk, and other vegetable milks.

Caseinate – See Casein.

Cashmere – Wool from the Kashmir goat. Used in clothing. Alternatives: synthetic fibers.

Castor/Castoreum – Creamy substance with strong odor from muskrat and beaver genitals. Used as a fixative in perfume and incense. Alternatives: synthetics, plant castor oil.

Castoreum – See Castor.

Catgut – Tough string from the intestines of sheep, horses, etc. Used for surgical sutures. Also for stringing tennis rackets and musical instruments, etc. Alternatives: nylon and other synthetic fibers.

Cera Flava – See Beeswax.

Cerebrosides – Fatty acids and sugars found in the covering of nerves. May include tissue from brain.

Cetyl Alcohol – Wax found in spermaceti from sperm whales or dolphins. Alternatives: Vegetable cetyl alcohol (e.g., coconut), synthetic spermaceti.

Cetyl Palmitate – See Spermaceti.

Chitosan – A fiber derived from crustacean shells. Used as a lipid binder in diet products, in hair, oral and skin care products, antiperspirants, and deodorants. Alternatives: raspberries, yams, legumes, dried apricots, and many other fruits and vegetables.

Cholesterin – See Lanolin.

Cholesterol – A steroid alcohol in all animal fats and oils, nervous tissue, egg yolk, and blood. Can be derived from lanolin. In cosmetics, eye creams, shampoos, etc. Alternatives: solid complex alcohols (sterols) from plant sources.

Choline Bitartrate – See Lecithin.

Civet – Unctuous secretion painfully scraped from a gland very near the genital organs of civet cats. Used as a fixative in perfumes. Alternatives: (See alternatives to Musk.).

Cochineal – See Carmine.

Cod Liver Oil – See Marine Oil.

Collagen – Fibrous protein in vertebrates. Usually derived from animal tissue. Can’t affect the skin’s own collagen. An allergen. Alternatives: soy protein, almond oil, amla oil (see alternative to Keratin), etc.

Colors/Dyes – Pigments from animal, plant, and synthetic sources used to color foods, cosmetics, and other products. Cochineal is from insects. Widely used FD&C and D&C colors are coaltar (bituminous coal) derivatives that are continously tested on animals due to their carcinogenic properties. Alternatives: grapes, beets, turmeric, saffron, carrots, chlorophyll, annatto, alkanet.

Corticosteroid – See Cortisone.

Cortisone – Hormone from adrenal glands. Widely used in medicine. Alternatives: synthetics.

Cysteine/L-Form – An amino acid from hair which can come from animals. Used in hair-care products and creams, in some bakery products, and in wound-healing formulations. Alternatives: plant sources.

Cystine – An amino acid found in urine and horsehair. Used as a nutritional supplement and in emollients. Alternatives: plant sources.

Dexpanthenol – See Panthenol.

Diglycerides – See Monoglycerides and Glycerin.

Dimethyl Stearamine – See Stearic Acid.

Down – Goose or duck insulating feathers. From slaughtered or cruelly exploited geese. Used as an insulator in quilts, parkas, sleeping bags, pillows, etc. Alternatives: polyester and synthetic substitutes, kapok (silky fibers from the seeds of some tropical trees) and milkweed seed pod fibers.

Duodenum Substances – From the digestive tracts of cows and pigs. Added to some vitamin tablets. In some medicines. Alternatives: vegetarian vitamins, synthetics.

Dyes – See Colors.

Egg Protein – In shampoos, skin preparations, etc. Alternatives: plant proteins.

Elastin – Protein found in the neck ligaments and aortas of cows. Similar to collagen. Can’t affect the skin’s own elasticity. Alternatives: synthetics, protein from plant tissues.

Emu Oil – From flightless ratite birds native to Australia and now factory farmed. Used in cosmetics and creams. Alternatives: vegetable and plant oils.

Ergocalciferol – See Vitamin D.

Ergosterol – See Vitamin D.

Estradiol – See Estrogen.

Estrogen/Estradiol – Female hormones from pregnant mares urine. Considered a drug. Can have harmful systemic effects if used by children. Used for reproductive problems and in birth control pills and Premarin, a menopausal drug. In creams, perfumes, and lotions. Has a negligible effect in the creams as a skin restorative; simple vegetable-source emollients are considered better. Alternatives: oral contraceptives and menopausal drugs based on synthetic steroids or phytoestrogens (from plants, especially palm-kernel oil). Menopausal symptoms can also be treated with diet and herbs.

Fats – See Animal Fats.

Fatty Acids – Can be one or any mixture of liquid and solid acids such as caprylic, lauric, myristic, oleic, palmitic, and stearic. Used in bubble baths, lipsticks, soap, detergents, cosmetics, food. Alternatives: vegetable-derived acids, soy lecithin, safflower oil, bitter almond oil, sunflower oil, etc.

FD&C Colors – See Colors.

Feathers – From exploited and slaughtered birds. Used whole as ornaments or ground up in shampoos. (See Down and Keratin.)

Fish Liver Oil – Used in vitamins and supplements. In milk fortified with vitamin D. Alternatives: yeast extract ergosterol and exposure of skin to sunshine.

Fish Oil – Fish oil can also be from marine mammals. Used in soap-making. See also Marine Oil.

Fish Scales – Used in shimmery makeups. Alternatives: mica, rayon, synthetic pearl.

Fur – Obtained from animals , usually mink, foxes, or rabbits, cruelly trapped in steel-jaw leghold traps or raised in intensive confinement on fur “farms.” Alternatives: synthetics. See also Sable Brushes.

Gel – See Gelatin.

Gelatin/Gel – Protein obtained by boiling skin, tendons, ligaments, and/or bones with water. From cows and pigs. Used in shampoos, face masks, and other cosmetics. Used as a thickener for fruit gelatins and puddings (e.g., “Jello”). In candies, marshmallows, cakes, ice cream, yogurts. On photographic film and in vitamins as a coating and as capsules. Sometimes used to assist in “clearing” wines. Alternatives: carrageen (carrageenan, Irish moss), seaweeds (algin, agar-agar, kelp—used in jellies, plastics, medicine), pectin from fruits, dextrins, locust bean gum, cotton gum, silica gel. Marshmallows were originally made from the root of the marsh mallow plant. Vegetarian capsules are now available from several companies. Digital cameras don’t use film.

Glucose Tyrosinase – See Tyrosine.

Glycerides – See Glycerin.

Glycerin/Glycerol – A byproduct of soap manufacture (normally uses animal fat). In cosmetics, foods, mouthwashes, chewing gum, toothpastes, soaps, ointments, medicines, lubricants, transmission and brake fluid, and plastics. Derivatives: Glycerides, Glyceryls, Glycreth-26, Polyglycerol. Alternatives: vegetable glycerin—a byproduct of vegetable oil soap. Derivatives of seaweed, petroleum.

Glycerol – See Glycerin.

Glyceryls – See Glycerin.

Glycreth-26 – See Glycerin.

Guanine/Pearl Essence – Obtained from scales of fish. Constituent of ribonucleic acid and deoxyribonucleic acid and found in all animal and plant tissues. In shampoo, nail polish, other cosmetics. Alternatives: leguminous plants, synthetic pearl, or aluminum and bronze particles.

Hide Glue – Same as gelatin but of a cruder impure form. Alternatives: dextrins and synthetic petrochemical-based adhesives. (See Gelatin.)

Honey – Food for bees, made by bees. Can cause allergic reactions. Used as a coloring and an emollient in cosmetics and as a flavoring in foods. Should never be fed to infants. Alternatives: in foods—maple syrup, date sugar, syrups made from grains such as barley malt, turbinado sugar, molasses; in cosmetics—vegetable colors and oils.

Honeycomb – See Beeswax.

Horsehair – See Animal Hair.

Hyaluronic Acid – A protein found in umbilical cords and the fluids around the joints. Used in cosmetics. Alternatives: synthetic hyaluronic acid, plant oils.

Hydrocortisone – See Cortisone.

Hydrolyzed Animal Protein – In cosmetics, especially shampoo and hair treatments. Alternatives: soy protein, other vegetable proteins, amla oil (see alternatives to Keratin).

Imidazolidinyl Urea – See Urea.

Insulin – From hog pancreas. Used by millions of diabetics daily. Alternatives: synthetics, vegetarian diet and nutritional supplements, human insulin grown in a lab.

Isinglass – A form of gelatin prepared from the internal membranes of fish bladders. Sometimes used in “clearing” wines and in foods. Alternatives: bentonite clay, “Japanese isinglass,” agar-agar (see alternatives to Gelatin), mica, a mineral used in cosmetics.

Isopropyl Lanolate – See Lanolin.

Isopropyl Myristate – See Myristic Acid.

Isopropyl Palmitate – Complex mixtures of isomers of stearic acid and palmitic acid. (See Stearic Acid.)

Keratin – Protein from the ground-up horns, hooves, feathers, quills, and hair of various animals. In hair rinses, shampoos, permanent wave solutions. Alternatives: almond oil, soy protein, amla oil (from the fruit of an Indian tree), human hair from salons. Rosemary and nettle give body and strand strength to hair.

Lactic Acid – Found in blood and muscle tissue. Also in sour milk, beer, sauerkraut, pickles, and other food products made by bacterial fermentation. Used in skin fresheners, as a preservative, in the formation of plasticizers, etc. Alternative: plant milk sugars, synthetics.

Lactose – Milk sugar from milk of mammals. In eye lotions, foods, tablets, cosmetics, baked goods, medicines. Alternatives: plant milk sugars.

Laneth – See Lanolin.

Lanogene – See Lanolin.

Lanolin/Lanolin Acids/Wool Fat/Wool Wax – A product of the oil glands of sheep, extracted from their wool. Used as an emollient in many skin care products and cosmetics and in medicines. An allergen with no proven effectiveness. (See Wool for cruelty to sheep.) Derivatives: Aliphatic Alcohols, Cholesterin, Isopropyl Lanolate, Laneth, Lanogene, Lanolin Alcohols, Lanosterols, Sterols, Triterpene Alcohols. Alternatives: plant and vegetable oils.

Lanolin Alcohol – See Lanolin.

Lanosterols – See Lanolin.

Lard – Fat from hog abdomens. In shaving creams, soaps, cosmetics. In baked goods, French fries, refried beans, and many other foods. Alternatives: pure vegetable fats or oils.

Leather/Suede/Calfskin/Sheepskin/Alligator Skin/Other Types of Skin – Subsidizes the meat industry. Used to make wallets, handbags, furniture and car upholstery, shoes, etc. Alternatives: cotton, canvas, nylon, vinyl, ultrasuede, pleather, other synthetics.

Lecithin/Choline Bitartrate – Waxy substance in nervous tissue of all living organisms. But frequently obtained for commercial purposes from eggs and soybeans. Also from nerve tissue, blood, milk, corn. Choline bitartrate, the basic constituent of lecithin, is in many animal and plant tissues and prepared synthetically. Lecithin can be in eye creams, lipsticks, liquid powders, hand creams, lotions, soaps, shampoos, other cosmetics, and some medicines. Alternatives: soybean lecithin, synthetics.

Linoleic Acid – An essential fatty acid. Used in cosmetics, vitamins. Alternatives: (See alternatives to Fatty Acids.)

Lipase – Enzyme from the stomachs and tongue glands of calves, kids, and lambs. Used in cheese-making and in digestive aids. Alternatives: vegetable enzymes, castor beans.

Lipids – See Lipoids.

Lipoids/Lipids – Fat and fat-like substances that are found in animals and plants. Alternatives: vegetable oils.

Marine Oil – From fish or marine mammals (including porpoises). Used in soap-making. Used as a shortening (especially in some margarines), as a lubricant, and in paint. Alternatives: vegetable oils.

Methionine – Essential amino acid found in various proteins (usually from egg albumen and casein). Used as a texturizer and for freshness in potato chips. Alternatives: synthetics.

Milk Protein – Hydrolyzed milk protein. From the milk of cows. In cosmetics, shampoos, moisturizers, conditioners, etc. Alternatives: soy protein, other plant proteins.

Mink Oil – From minks. In cosmetics, creams, etc. Alternatives: vegetable oils and emollients such as avocado oil, almond oil, and jojoba oil.

Monoglycerides/Glycerides – From animal fat. In margarines, cake mixes, candies, foods, etc. In cosmetics. Alternative: vegetable glycerides. See also Glycerin.

Musk (Oil) – Dried secretion painfully obtained from musk deer, beaver, muskrat, civet cat, and otter genitals. Wild cats are kept captive in cages in horrible conditions and are whipped around the genitals to produce the scent; beavers are trapped; deer are shot. In perfumes and in food flavorings. Alternatives: labdanum oil (which comes from various rockrose shrubs) and other plants with a musky scent. Labdanum oil has no known

Myristal Ether Sulfate – See Myristic Acid.

Myristic Acid – Organic acid in most animal and vegetable fats. In butter acids. Used in shampoos, creams, cosmetics. In food flavorings. Derivatives: Isopropyl Myristate, Myristal Ether Sulfate, Myristyls, Oleyl Myristate. Alternatives: nut butters, oil of lovage, coconut oil, extract from seed kernels of nutmeg, etc.

Myristyls – See Myristic Acid.

“Natural Sources” – Can mean animal or vegetable sources. Most often in the health food industry, especially in the cosmetics area, it means animal sources, such as animal elastin, glands, fat, protein, and oil. Alternatives: plant sources.

Nucleic Acids – In the nucleus of all living cells. Used in cosmetics, shampoos, conditioners, etc. Also in vitamins, supplements. Alternatives: plant sources.

Ocenol – See Oleyl Alcohol.

Octyl Dodecanol – Mixture of solid waxy alcohols. Primarily from stearyl alcohol. (See Stearyl Alcohol.)

Oleic Acid – Obtained from various animal and vegetable fats and oils. Usually obtained commercially from inedible tallow. (See Tallow.) In foods, soft soap, bar soap, permanent wave solutions, creams, nail polish, lipsticks, many other skin preparations. Derivatives: Oleyl Oleate, Oleyl Stearate. Alternatives: coconut oil. (See alternatives to Animal Fats and Oils.)

Oils – See alternatives to Animal Fats and Oils.

Oleths – See Oleyl Alcohol.

Oleyl Alcohol/Ocenol – Found in fish oils. Used in the manufacture of detergents, as a plasticizer for softening fabrics, and as a carrier for medications. Derivatives: Oleths, Oleyl Arachidate, Oleyl Imidazoline.

Oleyl Arachidate – See Oleyl Alcohol.

Oleyl Imidazoline – See Oleyl Alcohol.

Oleyl Myristate – See Myristic Acid.

Oleyl Oleate – See Oleic Acid.

Oleyl Stearate – See Oleic Acid.

Palmitamide – See Palmitic Acid.

Palmitamine – See Palmitic Acid.

Palmitate – See Palmitic Acid.

Palmitic Acid – From fats, oils. Mixed with stearic acid. Found in many animal fats and plant oils. In shampoos, shaving soaps, creams. Derivatives: Palmitate, Palmitamine, Palmitamide. Alternatives: palm oil, vegetable sources. See also Fatty Acids.

Panthenol/Dexpanthenol/Vitamin B-Complex Factor/Provitamin B-5 – Can come from animal or plant sources or synthetics. In shampoos, supplements, emollients, etc. In foods. Derivative: Panthenyl. Alternatives: synthetics, plants.

Panthenyl – See Panthenol.

Pepsin – Obtainrd from hogs’ stomachs. A clotting agent. In some cheeses and vitamins. Same uses and alternatives as Rennet.

Placenta/Placenta Polypeptides Protein/Afterbirth – Contains waste matter eliminated by the fetus. Derived from the uterus of slaughtered animals. Animal placenta is widely used in skin creams, shampoos, masks, etc. Alternatives: kelp. See also alternatives to Animal Fats and Oils.

Polyglycerol – See Glycerin.

Polypeptides – From animal protein. Used in cosmetics. Alternatives: plant proteins and enzymes.

Polysorbates – Derivatives of fatty acids. In cosmetics, foods.

Pristane – Obtained from the liver oil of sharks and from whale ambergris. Used as a lubricant and anti-corrosive agent. In cosmetics. Alternatives: plant oils, synthetics. See Squalene, Ambergris.

Progesterone – A steroid hormone used in anti-wrinkle face creams. Can have adverse systemic effects. Alternatives: synthetics.

Propolis – Tree sap gathered by bees and used as a sealant in beehives. In toothpaste, shampoo, deodorant, supplements, etc. Alternatives: tree sap, synthetics.

Provitamin A – See Carotene.

Provitamin B-5 – See Panthenol.

Provitamin D-2 – See Vitamin D.

Rennet/Rennin – Enzyme from calves’ stomachs. Used in cheese-making, rennet custard (junket), and in many coagulated dairy products. Alternatives: microbial coagulating agents, bacteria culture, lemon juice, or vegetable rennet.

Rennin – See Rennet.

Resinous Glaze – See Shellac.

Ribonucleic Acid – See RNA.

RNA/Ribonucleic Acid – RNA is in all living cells. Used in many protein shampoos and cosmetics. Alternatives: plant cells.

Royal Jelly – Secretion from the throat glands of the honeybee workers that is fed to the larvae in a colony and to all queen larvae. No proven value in cosmetics preparations. Alternatives: aloe vera, comfrey, other plant derivatives.

Sable Brushes – From the fur of sables (weasel-like mammals). Used to make eye makeup, lipstick, and artists’ brushes. Alternatives: synthetic fibers.

Sea Turtle Oil – See Turtle Oil.

Shark Liver Oil – Oil from shark livers, etc. In cosmetics, moisturizers, hair dyes, surface-active agents. Used in lubricating creams and lotions. Derivatives: Squalane, Squalene. Alternatives: vegetable oils. Alternatives: vegetable emollients such as olive oil, wheat germ oil, rice bran oil, etc.

Sheepskin – See Leather.

Shellac/Resinous Glaze – Resinous excretion of certain insects. Used as a candy glaze, in hair lacquer, and on jewelry. Alternatives: plant waxes.

Silk/Silk Powder – Silk is the shiny fiber made by silkworms to form their cocoons. Worms are boiled in their cocoons to get the silk. Used in cloth. In silk-screening other fine cloth can and is used instead. Taffeta can be made from silk or nylon. Silk powder is obtained from the secretion of the silkworm. It is used as a coloring agent in face powders, soaps, etc. Can cause severe allergic skin reactions and systemic reactions if inhaled or ingested. Alternatives: milkweed seed-pod fibers, nylon, silk-cotton tree and ceiba tree filaments (kapok), rayon, and synthetic silks.

Snails – In some cosmetics (crushed).

Sodium Caseinate – See Casein.

Sodium Steroyl Lactylate – See Lactic Acid.

Sodium Tallowate – See Tallow.

Spermaceti/Cetyl Palmitate/Sperm Oil – Waxy oil derived from the sperm whale’s head or from dolphins. In many margarines. In skin creams, ointments, shampoos, candles, etc. Used in the leather industry. May become rancid and cause irritations. Alternatives: synthetic spermaceti, jojoba oil, and other vegetable emollients.

Sponge (Luna and Sea) – A plant like animal that lives in the sea and is becoming scarce. Alternatives: synthetic sponges, loofahs (plants used as sponges).

Squalane – See Shark Liver Oil.

Stearamide – See Stearic Acid.

Stearamine – See Stearic Acid.

Stearamine Oxide – See Stearyl Alcohol.

Stearates – See Stearic Acid.

Stearic Acid – Fat from cows and sheep and from dogs and cats euthanized in animal shelters, etc. Most often refers to a fatty substance taken from the stomachs of pigs. Can be harsh, irritating. Used in cosmetics, soaps, lubricants, candles, hairspray, conditioners, deodorants, creams, chewing gum, food flavoring. Derivatives: Stearamide, Stearamine, Stearates, Stearic Hydrazide, Stearone, Stearoxytrimethylsilane, Stearoyl Lactylic Acid, Stearyl Betaine, Stearyl Imidazoline. Alternatives: Stearic acid can be found in many vegetable fats, coconut.

Stearic Hydrazide – See Stearic Acid.

Stearone – See Stearic Acid.

Stearoxytrimethylsilane – See Stearic Acid.

Stearoyl Lactylic Acid – See Stearic Acid.

Stearyl Acetate – See Stearyl Alcohol.

Stearyl Alcohol/Sterols – A mixture of solid alcohols. Can be prepared from sperm whale oil. In medicines, creams, rinses, shampoos, etc. Derivatives: Stearamine Oxide, Stearyl Acetate, Stearyl Caprylate, Stearyl Citrate, Stearyldimethyl Amine, Stearyl Glycyrrhetinate, Stearyl Heptanoate, Stearyl Octanoate, Stearyl Stearate. Alternatives: plant sources, vegetable stearic acid.

Stearyl Betaine – See Stearic Acid.

Stearyl Caprylate – See Stearyl Alcohol.

Stearyl Citrate – See Stearyl Alcohol.

Stearyldimethyl Amine – See Stearyl Alcohol.

Stearyl Glycyrrhetinate – See Stearyl Alcohol.

Stearyl Heptanoate – See Stearyl Alcohol.

Stearyl Imidazoline – See Stearic Acid.

Stearyl Octanoate – See Stearyl Alcohol.

Stearyl Stearate – See Stearyl Alcohol.

Steroids/Sterols – From various animal glands or from plant tissues. Steroids include sterols. Sterols are alcohol from animals or plants (e.g., cholesterol). Used in hormone preparation. In creams, lotions, hair conditioners, fragrances, etc. Alternatives: plant tissues, synthetics. See also Stearyl Alcohol.

Suede – See Leather.

Tallow/Tallow Fatty Alcohol/Stearic Acid – Rendered beef fat. May cause eczema and blackheads. In wax paper, crayons, margarines, paints, rubber, lubricants, etc. In candles, soaps, lipsticks, shaving creams, other cosmetics. Chemicals (e.g., PCB) can be in animal tallow. Derivatives: Sodium Tallowate, Tallow Acid, Tallow Amide, Tallow Amine, Talloweth-6, Tallow Glycerides, Tallow Imidazoline. Alternatives: vegetable tallow, Japan tallow, paraffin and/or ceresin (see alternatives to Beeswax for all three). Paraffin is usually from petroleum, wood, coal, or shale oil.

Tallow Acid – See Tallow.

Tallow Amide – See Tallow.

Tallow Amine – See Tallow.

Talloweth-6 – See Tallow.

Tallow Glycerides – See Tallow.

Tallow Imidazoline – See Tallow.

Triterpene Alcohols – See Lanolin.

Turtle Oil/Sea Turtle Oil – From the muscles and genitals of giant sea turtles. In soap, skin creams, nail creams, other cosmetics. Alternatives: vegetable emollients (see alternatives to Animal Fats and Oils).

Tyrosine – Amino acid hydrolyzed from casein. Used in cosmetics and creams. Derivative: Glucose Tyrosinase.

Urea/Carbamide – Excreted from urine and other bodily fluids. In deodorants, ammoniated dentifrices, mouthwashes, hair colorings, hand creams, lotions, shampoos, etc. Used to “brown” baked goods, such as pretzels. Derivatives: Imidazolidinyl Urea, Uric Acid. Alternatives: synthetics.

Uric Acid – See Urea.

Vitamin A – Can come from fish liver oil (e.g., shark liver oil), egg yolk, butter, lemongrass, wheat germ oil, carotene in carrots, and synthetics. It is an aliphatic alcohol. In cosmetics, creams, perfumes, hair dyes, etc. In vitamins, supplements. Alternatives: carrots, other vegetables, synthetics.

Vitamin B-Complex Factor – See Panthenol.

Vitamin B Factor – See Biotin.

Vitamin B-12 – Can come from animal products or bacteria cultures. Twinlab B-12 vitamins contain gelatin. Alternatives: Vegetarian vitamins, fortified soy milks, nutritional yeast, fortified meat substitutes. Vitamin B12 is often listed as “cyanocobalamin” on food labels. Vegan health professionals caution that vegans get vitamin B12 from fortified foods or supplements daily.

Vitamin D/Ergocalciferol/Vitamin D-2/Ergosterol/Provitamin D-2/Calciferol/Vitamin D-3 – Vitamin D can come from fish liver oil, milk, egg yolk, etc. Vitamin D-2 can come from animal fats or plant sterols. Vitamin D-3 is always from an animal source. All the D vitamins can be in creams, lotions, other cosmetics, vitamin tablets, etc. Alternatives: plant and mineral sources, synthetics, completely vegetarian vitamins, exposure of skin to sunshine. Many other vitamins can come from animal sources. Examples: choline, biotin, inositol, riboflavin, etc.

Vitamin H – See Biotin.

Wax – Glossy, hard substance that is soft when hot. From animals and plants. In lipsticks, depilatories, hair straighteners. Alternatives: vegetable waxes.

Whey – A serum from milk. Usually in cakes, cookies, candies, and breads. In cheese-making. Alternatives: soybean whey.

Wool – From sheep. Used in clothing. Ram lambs and old “wool” sheep are slaughtered for their meat. Sheep are transported without food or water, in extreme heat and cold. Legs are broken, eyes injured, etc. Sheep are bred to be unnaturally woolly, also unnaturally wrinkly, which causes them to get insect infestations around the tail areas. The farmer’s solution to this is the painful cutting away of the flesh around the tail (called ?mulesing?). “Inferior” sheep are killed. When shearing the sheep, they are pinned down violently and sheared roughly. Their skin is cut up. Every year, hundreds of thousands of shorn sheep die from exposure to cold. Natural predators of sheep (wolves, coyotes, eagles, etc.) are poisoned, trapped, and shot. In the U.S., overgrazing of cattle and sheep is turning more than 150 million acres of land to desert. “Natural” wool production uses enormous amounts of resources and energy (to breed, raise, feed, shear, transport, slaughter, etc., the sheep). Derivatives: Lanolin, Wool Wax, Wool Fat. Alternatives: cotton, cotton flannel, synthetic fibers, ramie, etc.

Wool Fat – See Lanolin.

Wool Wax – See Lanolin.

Buyukmihci, Nermin. “John Cardillo’s List of Animal Products and Their Alternatives.”

Cosmetic Ingredients Glossary: A Basic Guide to Natural Body Care Products. Petaluma, Calif.: Feather River Co., 1988.

Mason, Jim, and Peter Singer. Animal Factories. New York: Crown Publishers, Inc., 1980.

Ruesch, Hans. Slaughter of the Innocent. New York: Civitas, 1983.

Singer, Peter. Animal Liberation. New York: Random House, 1990.

Webster’s Third New International Dictionary. Springfield, Mass.: Merriam-Webster Inc., 1981.
Winter, Ruth. A Consumer’s Dictionary of Cosmetic Ingredients. New York: Crown Publishing Group, 1994.
Winter, Ruth. A Consumer’s Dictionary of Food Additives. New York: Crown Publishing Group, 1994.

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