Posts Tagged ‘Resistance’

Boston University College of Engineering; Low levels of antibiotics cause multidrug resistance in ‘superbugs’

Anonymous. NewsRx Health (Mar 7, 2010): 108.

2010 MAR 7 – (VerticalNews.com) — For years, doctors have warned patients to finish their antibiotic prescriptions or risk a renewed infection by a “superbug” that can mount a more powerful defense against the same drug. But a new study by Boston University biomedical engineers indicates that treating bacteria with levels of antibiotics insufficient to kill them produces germs that are cross-resistant to a wide range of antibiotics.

In the Feb. 12 issue of Molecular Cell, research led by Boston University Professor James J. Collins details for the first time the biomolecular process that produces superbugs. When administered in lethal levels, antibiotics trigger a fatal chain reaction within the bacteria that shreds the cell’s DNA. But, when the level of antibiotic is less than lethal the same reaction causes DNA mutations that are not only survivable, but actually protect the bacteria from numerous antibiotics beyond the one it was exposed to.

“In effect, what doesn’t kill them makes them stronger,” said Collins, who is also a Howard Hughes Medical Institute investigator. “These findings drive home the need for tighter regulations on the use of antibiotics, especially in agriculture; for doctors to be more disciplined in their prescription of antibiotics; and for patients to be more disciplined in following their prescriptions.”

Two years ago, Collins – together with graduate student Michael Kohanski and post-doctoral fellow Mark DePristo — proved that when applied in lethal doses, antibiotics stimulate the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) molecules, or free radicals that damage DNA, protein and lipids in bacterial cells, contributing to their demise. In the new study, the same co-authors demonstrated that the free radicals produced by a sub-lethal dose of an antibiotic accelerate mutations that protect against a variety of antibiotics other than the administered drug.

“We know free radicals damage DNA, and when that happens, DNA repair systems get called into play that are known to introduce mistakes, or mutations,” said Collins. “We arrived at the hypothesis that sub-lethal levels of antibiotics could bump up the mutation rate via the production of free radicals, and lead to the dramatic emergence of multi-drug resistance.”

Testing their hypothesis on strains of E. coli and Staphylococcus, the researchers administered sub-lethal levels of five kinds of antibiotics and showed that each boosted levels of ROS and mutations in the bacterial DNA. They next conducted a series of experiments to show that bacteria initially subjected to a sub-lethal dose of one of the antibiotics exhibited cross-resistance to a number of the other antibiotics. Finally, they sequenced the genes known to cause resistance to each antibiotic and pinpointed the mutations that protected the bacteria. Ironically, the researchers discovered that in some cases the bacteria were still be susceptible to the original antibiotic.

“The sub-lethal levels dramatically drove up the mutation levels, and produced a wide array of mutations,” Collins observed. “Because you’re not killing with the antibiotics, you’re allowing many different types of mutants to survive. We discovered that in this zoo of mutants, you can actually have a mutant that could be killed by the antibiotic that produced the mutation but, as a result of its mutation, be resistant to other antibiotics.”

The group’s findings underscore the potentially serious consequences to public health of administering antibiotics in low or incomplete doses. This is common practice among farmers who apply low levels of antibiotics to livestock feed; doctors who prescribe low levels of antibiotics as placebos for people with viral infections; and patients who don’t follow the full course of antibiotic treatment.

The study’s findings may ultimately lead to the development of new antibiotic treatments enhanced with compounds designed to prevent the emergence of multi-drug resistance. For example, one potential treatment might inhibit the DNA damage repair systems that lead to the problematic mutations, while another might boost production of cell-destroying free radicals so that a low dose of antibiotic is sufficient to kill targeted bacterial cells.

Keywords: Agricultural, Agriculture, Antibacterial, Antibiotic, Antimicrobial Resistance, Bioengineering, Biomedical Engineering, Biomedicine, Drug Development, Drug Resistance, Engineering, Livestock, Therapy, Treatment, Boston University College of Engineering.

This article was prepared by NewsRx Health editors from staff and other reports. Copyright 2010, NewsRx Health via NewsRx.com.

(c)Copyright 2010, NewsRx Health via NewsRx.com

NOTE TO COPYRIGHT HOLDER, READERS AND PUBLISHERS:

FAIR USE NOTICE: This site contains copyrighted material the use of which has not always been specifically authorized by the copyright owner. We are making such material available in our efforts to advance understanding of political, economic, scientific, and educational issues. We believe this constitutes a ‘fair use’ of any such copyrighted material as provided for in section 107 of the US Copyright Law. In accordance with Title 17 U.S.C. Section 107, the material on this site is distributed without profit to those who have expressed a prior interest in receiving the included information for research and educational purposes. For more information go to:

http://www.law.cornell.edu/uscode/17/107.shtml.

If you wish to use copyrighted material from this site for purposes of your own that go beyond ‘fair use’, you must obtain permission from the copyright owner.

Occupied Palestine | فلسطين

By Markus Fitzgerald | 15 August 2012 | International Solidarity Movement, West Bank

On the evening of July 26, social media lit up with messages from residents of the village Nabi Saleh.

“Four army jeeps and around 20 soldiers standing at the entrance” tweeted Manal Tamimi, and later, “for the third day (in a [row]) the army invading the village before eftar.”

Nabi Saleh resident Manal Tamimi – click to see more photos

Since late 2010, Nabi Saleh has been raided regularly by Israeli forces, and the religious month of Ramadan is no exception. The long awaited eftar meal brings relief to the fasting people. In the little village, only a 15 minute drive northwest of Ramallah, eftar often arrives with uninvited guests.

The reasons for these punitive raids must be found in late 2009 when people from Nabi Saleh and nearby villages organized to protest the occupation and the…

View original post 1,307 more words

World

[time-brightcove videoid=1785590408001]

I stumbled into Kamel Qadummi during a demonstration at his village, Kafr Qaddum, a few months ago. With his laptop in one hand and a small camera in the other, he was running straight into the cloud of tear gas, breathless. Unlike the foreign photojournalists, he didn’t have a gas mask, yet he was determined to film the events and webcast them live.

View original post 332 more words

“Army Admits Re-Education Camp Manual “Not Intended For Public Release” 

by: Paul Joseph Watson
Source: Infowars.com
Wednesday, May 9, 2012

Fort Leonard Wood Public Affairs director Tiffany Wood has provided the first official response to the shocking U.S. Army document that outlines the implementation of re-education camps, admitting that the manual was “not intended for public release” and claiming that its provisions only apply outside the United States, a contention completely disproved by the language contained in the document itself.

After a reader sent Wood a link to where the manual, entitled FM 3-39.40 Internment and Resettlement Operations (PDF), can be downloaded on the army.mil website (but only by military employees with special credentials), Wood responded by stating that the document should not be in the public domain.

Public Affairs Director falsely claims document does not apply within U.S.

The document was not intended for public release,” said Wood, adding, “Any other questions regarding the document, you will need to file a FOIA request.”

This means that either hackers have obtained access to a secure military website and downloaded the manual or it was leaked by a military employee concerned about the content of the document.

As we have exhaustively illustrated, the document is a training manual for U.S. Army personnel that details how to treat detainees incarcerated in prison camps both abroad and inside the United States.

Read the FULL REPORT HERE as posted on Infowars website, Author: Paul Joseph Watson.

Download the USArmy-InternmentResettlement – As sourced and downloaded from Infowars

About the Author: Paul Joseph Watson is the editor and writer for Prison Planet.com. He is the author of Order Out Of Chaos. Watson is also a regular fill-in host for The Alex Jones Show and Infowars Nightly News. (Source: Infowars.com)

Note: This information is posted under the Copyright “fair use policy”. This information is provided free of charge and no monetary gains will be made by the sharing of this information. it is my belief that this information is important to the public.  Original source identified as Global Research Website and Author stated.